• The Safeness and Effectiveness of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs When Used Postoperatively in Pediatric Patients

      Long, Nadine; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      The purpose of this study will be to examine the effect of routine use of NSAIDs compared to opioids and its complications in postoperative pain management in the pediatric population. We hypothesize that NSAIDs are a safe and effective alternative to opioids for the management of post-operation pain in the pediatric population. Patients between the age 0 – 17 years-old admitted to the PICU at the Children’s Hospital of Georgia between July 2018 to June 2020 were enrolled in the study. Then postoperative chart review and survey was conducted. It was found that those who took NSAIDs reported similar analgesic effects as those who took opioids; however, those who took opioids reported a higher incidence of side effects. Therefore, we believe NSAIDs are a safe and effective way to manage the pediatric pain after an operation. NSAIDs can be used alternatively to opioids or to reduce opioid usage.

      Baxter, John; Brenes, C; Rueggeberg, FA; Departments of General Dentistry; Department of Restorative Sciences (Augusta University, 2019)
      Direct, tissue-borne, full denture restoration of edentulous arches has become a well accepted restoration modality for millions of people. In this methodology, the tissue-bearing surface of a polymeric material replacing the form and structure of lost alveolar bond and overlying mucosa rests directly on the residual ridge tissue. Retention of the denture is attained through capillary adhesion forces acting to wet (cover) both the oral mucosa and the polymeric denture bases that rests upon it. Good wetting by saliva is thus one of the many critical features affecting adhesion of the denture base to the oral mucosa. Measurement of the ability of a fluid to wet a surface is performed using the shape of a fluid droplet on that surface. If the fluid wets that surface, then the droplet will spread out. If the fluid does not wet that surface, it will bead up. Quantitative measurement of fluid flow on a surface is performed using measurement of the “contact angle.” In this method, a controlled volume is dispensed onto a surface, and while viewing the interaction of that fluid in silhouette, the angle formed at the tangent of that drop and the flat surface is determined. The lower the contact angle, the more a fluid wets a surface, and the higher its value, the less wetting is that fluid on a specific surface.
    • Salmonella newport bacteremia in a 12-day-old infant.

      Singh, Abhijit; Wilkins, Thad; Schade, Robert R.; Department of Family Medicine (2011-03)
      In the United States, Salmonella infections (salmonellosis) cause multiple medical problems. Although the most common presenting symptom is diarrhea, bacteremia can also occur. An estimated 1.4 million cases of salmonellosis occur annually in the United States. We present a case of Salmonella bacteremia in a 12-day old infant. We discuss the presenting signs, symptoms, and management strategies for a patient younger than 28 days old (neonate) presenting with fever and diarrhea.
    • Salty or Slightly Salty: Is Fish Species Richness Affected by an Obsolete Navigational Cut?

      Patterson, Rebecca; Mathews, Loren; Saul, Bruce; Biological Sciences, Georgia Southern University (Biology) (Augusta University Libraries, 2020-05-04)
      This item presents the abstract for a poster presentation at the 21st Annual Phi Kappa Phi Student Research and Fine Arts Conference.
    • Salubrinal Mediated Fetal Hemoglobin Induction Through The PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 Signaling Pathway

      Lopez, Nicole; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2016-03)
      Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder caused by a point mutation in the β-globin gene affecting ~100,000 people in the United States. These individuals suffer from hemolytic anemia, pain, and progressive organ damage. The best therapeutic intervention in SCD is fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction by pharmacologic agents, however, Hydroxyurea is the only FDA-approved drug with proven efficacy. The goal of this project is to discover drugs that induce HbF by novel mechanisms for SCD treatment. Salubrinal (SAL), a selective inhibitor of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), was shown to increase HbF levels by enhancing γ-globin mRNA translation. These findings lead us to test the hypothesis that SAL activates the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 stress response, as a mechanism of HbF induction in erythroid progenitors. Studies were conducted in K562 and erythroid progenitor generated from CD34+ stem cells treated with SAL (5, 12, and 18µM) for 48hr. RT-qPCR and western blot were used to measure γ-globin mRNA and HbF protein levels respectively. Preliminary data revealed a dose-dependent increase for HbF levels in K562 and erythroid progenitors treated with SAL. Flow cytometry showed an increase in the number of cells producing HbF (%F-cells). Furthermore, eIF2α and ATF4 levels were increased by SAL in K562 cells. These findings suggest SAL mediates HbF induction through eIF2α/ATF-4 signaling; future studies using the preclinical sickle cell mouse model will be investigated.
    • Screening for Circadian Rhythm of Core Body Temperature in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

      Secrest, Janet A.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1987-10)
      The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of core body temperature in spinal cord injured patients. The research question was: Is there a circadian rhythm for core body temperature in spinal cord injured patients? Subjects included 19 in patients with traumatic spinal cord transections at or above the fourth thoracic segment. Oral temperatures were monitored every four hours for a 48-hour period using an electronic thermometer. The range of individual subjects temperature ranges were 1.1 to 5.2 degrees F. The group pattern of mean temperatures from Day 1 was similar to that of Day 2.A significant difference was found between the time periods (p = .038). The higher temperatures occurred in the evening, and the lower temperatures in the morning. The finding of a circadian rhythm for core body temperature was unexpected in spinal cord injured subjects.
    • Scythe & Halo Cab Company: A Creative Activity in Podcasting

      Burgin, Madeline; Department of Communications (Augusta University, 2020-12)
      Trigger Warning: This thesis discusses suicide. 2020 was the hardest year of my life, for many different reasons. I know that I am not alone in that statement. This year has been laden with turmoil, crises, tragedies, and most of all: death. In this time, many artists are at work documenting this period, the topics that have arisen, and the emotions involved. My honors thesis aims to do the same. Over this past year, I have plotted a whole season of a fictional podcast about Ripley Abbott, a grim reaper, written the script for episode one, written treatments for episodes 22-6, held auditions, cast the characters, and fully produced and edited the first episode. The ultimate goal of this podcast is to act as a social commentary about the shared human experience. One truth that binds all humanity together is the fact that everyone will die. By exploring the afterlife, I am exploring universal themes such as: justice, fate, death, life, fear, and uncertainty. From worldbuilding to plot to character development, the podcast will explore interconnection of humanity through life and death.
    • The Second World War: the Conception of the Absurd and a Resolution

      Hawk, Erin; Department of English & Foreign Languages (2017-03)
      The Second World War was a time of catastrophic changes to the physical and metaphysical world. The world order was turned upside down. Nations were destroyed. Cities were destroyed. Villages were destroyed. Families were torn apart. Fathers, mothers, sons and daughters were slain. Everything previously known about the world was destroyed. The certainty of individuals with their lives was now put into doubt. Man was deprived of memories of a lost homeland as much as he lacked the hope of a promised land to come. In essence, the Second World War was the divorce between man and his life, the actor and his stage, which constituted the truthful sentiment of the absurd. In this context, it would only make sense if the thought of this period were to reflect the sentiment of the absurd. Albert Camus was one of the most prominent intellectuals that actualized and concreted the philosophy of the absurd, which eventually surfaced as the theme of many works. Most works simply present the absurd and or gift the reader or audience the overwhelming experience of it, but Camus dives deeper. The absurd, to him, isn’t just a feeling, or a realization or even a theme to produce dramatic effect. It is a serious philosophical hurdle that raises the question: Is life worth living? This abstract is an English translation of the project that was completed in Spanish.)

      O'Neil, Rachelle; Department of Social Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Voting for public office is often touted as a right, and the ability to do so without interference is vital to the democratic process of the United States. However, during the U.S. 2016 Presidential Election, Russia interfered with the voting process. Given that Russia and the U.S. has a long tenuous relationship that consist of a mutual back and forth, this paper proposes that the security dilemma theory offers an explanation outlining Russia’s cyberaggression toward the U.S. 2016 Presidential Election and whether the aggression posturing was offensive, defensive, or an exchange of both. Additionally, this paper conducts a literature review of the security dilemma theory and the rise of the cybersecurity dilemmas its derivative and ascertains their applicability to the proposed thesis. The paper further argues that in relation to the U.S., Russia, as a Great Power, more likely favors cyberaggression when threatened, real or perceived. This paper uses case analysis as the methodology for testing its research question and answering its thesis. The case analysis comprises of examples of the security dilemma theory, aggression, the cybersecurity dilemma , and cyberaggression exchanged between Russia and the U.S. during the Cold War and 21st Century. After reviewing analysis trends, a discussion follows that covers gapsin this research; advanced knowledge about the theory; the thesis astested; the development or testing of the theory; methodology of cases analyzed; the sources used; measurement of variables; limitations of the study; generalization of results; and finally the reliability or replicability of the results.

      Okashah, Najeah; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (Augusta University, 2020-03)
      Hundreds of human G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) converge on activation of four families of heterotrimeric G proteins. Individual receptors select a subset of G proteins in order to produce appropriate cellular responses. While the precise mechanisms of coupling selectivity are uncertain, the G alpha subunit carboxy (C) terminus is believed to be the primary region recognized by GPCRs. We directly assessed coupling between 14 representative GPCRs and 16 G alpha subunits, including one wild-type G alpha subunit from each of the four families and 12 chimeras with exchanged C termini. We found that Gi-coupled receptors were relatively selective for Gi1 heterotrimers, while Gs-, Gq-, and G12- coupled receptors were more promiscuous and always coupled in some measure to Gi1 heterotrimers. Our tests with G alpha subunit chimeras show that the G alpha subunit core and C terminus both play important roles in selectivity. This suggests that the key G protein determinants of selectivity vary widely, even for different receptors that couple to the same G protein. While promiscuous GPCR-G protein coupling is often observed. These interactions behave as expected with receptor-G protein coupling and activation being almost synonymous. Agonist bound GPCRs activate the G protein heterotrimers they interact with, while ignoring G protein subtypes that they cannot activate. However, we have shown that GPCRs can form unproductive complexes with G12 heterotrimers. Vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) forms agonist-dependent complexes with G12 heterotrimers. Unlike V2R complexes with cognate Gs heterotrimers, V2R-G12 complexes do not dissociate when GDP or GTP is present. Stimulating V2R with arginine vasopressin (AVP) does not activate signaling responses downstream of G12 activation. Evaluation of several G12-coupled receptors demonstrated that agonist induced GPCR-G12 complexes have a wide range resistance to GDP. Like V2R receptors, formyl peptide 2 receptors (FPR2) and smoothened receptors (SMOR) formed complexes with G12 heterotrimers that were relatively resistant to GDP. Our results indicate that several GPCRs can form agonist-dependent unproductive complexes with G12 heterotrimers that are relatively resistant to GDP. Suggesting that for some GPCRs agonist-dependent association with G12 heterotrimers is weakly coupled to nucleotide exchange
    • Self-Regulation Intervention by Telephone to Reduce Weight and Blood Pressure in Overweight Women with Elevated Blood Pressure

      Fluker, Janet G; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2005-05)
      Excess weight and increases in blood pressure are two biological risk factors that can be modified with changes in lifestyle behaviors. Lifestyle modification involving nutrition and activity level remain the cornerstone of prevention and treatment for individuals who are overweight and hypertensive. Self-regulation intervention delivered by telephone is designed to assist individuals in adopting lifestyle modifications to lose weight and reduce blood pressure. The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to test the effectiveness o f a telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention in reducing weight and systolic blood pressure in overweight women with elevated blood pressure. Secondary aims were to test the effectiveness of self-regulation intervention on weight self-efficacy, exercise selfefficacy and health status. Sixty-two overweight women with elevated blood pressure were randomly assigned to either five weeks of telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention (n=31) or usual care control group (n=31). Repeated measurements for outcome variables occurred at Baseline, 6-weeks and 10-weeks. Two-way ANOVA with one repeated factor demonstrated a significant interaction for weight x group (F= 8.79, df = 1/60 p = .004), with individuals in the self-regulation intervention group having a significantly greater weight loss as compared to individuals in the usual care group. Examining weight self-efficacy x group differences there was a significant difference in weight self-efficacy (F= 12.39, df = 1/60 p = .001) with individuals in the self-regulation intervention having a greater increase as compared to individuals in the usual care control group. There was a significant main effect for systolic blood pressure (F = 9.00, df 2/120, p < 01) and health status (F= .4.94, d f = 1/60, p = .03). There was no significant interaction for systolic blood pressure x group, exercise self-efficacy x group, or health status x group. These results support the use of telephone-delivered self-regulation intervention in the primary care setting as a more effective means than usual care to assist overweight women with elevated blood pressure in losing weight and increasing weight self-efficacy. Self-regulation was shown to be effective in lowering blood pressure and improving health status but it did not prove to be more effective than usual care.
    • Sense of Coherence and Psychological Well-Being Among Female Adult Children of Alcoholics

      Kito, Noriko; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1998-11)
      Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOA) have been identified as an at-risk population for alcoholism and depression. However, findings of previous studies have been inconsistent. Adapting the Salutogenic model proposed by Antonovsky (1979, 1987), this cross-sectional correlational study was designed to test a model of psychological well-being among female ACOAs. The constructs in the model were: past life experiences (family functioning in the family of origin and the gender of parental alcoholism), present life experiences (social functioning and self-help group attendance), generalized resistant resources (income and education), stressors (negative life events), Sense of Coherence, and psychological well-being (depression and inclination to problematic drinking behaviors). Following approval from the human assurance committee, a combination of local and Internet announcements were used to recruit self-identified ACOA women between the ages of 30 and 50, asking them to participate in an anonymous survey by mail. To measure research variables, seven pre-existing questionnaires were used with a selfdeveloped demographic questionnaire for this study. One hundred twenty-one participants returned their questionnaire, and 112 cases were used for analyses. Through path analyses, the results of testing the study hypotheses partially supported the theoretical model. Social functioning and family functioning in the family of origin significantly accounted for Sense of Coherence while Sense of Coherence showed a significant direct effect on depression. However, stressors did not significantly contribute to Sense of Coherence as originally posited. Generalized resistant resources did not show an indirect effect on Sense of Coherence. In the test of an alternative model, Sense of Coherence appeared to mediate the relationship between social functioning and depression. Also, in the alternative model, social functioning mediated between stressors and depression and between family functioning in the family of origin and depression. The study findings suggest emphasis on social functioning and Sense of Coherence in efforts to decrease depression among ACOA women.

      Sood, Nitish; Mehra, Mehul; Department of Biological Sciences; University of California Berkeley; Bates, Christopher; Mittal, Anav; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
      Phylogenetic tree construction can be a particularly challenging and time-intensive process. This study employs a novel computational approach to phylogenetic tree construction, using the Alu repeating element, a SINE. Repetitive elements including Short and Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs/LINEs) have successfully been applied as accurate tools for phylogenetic analysis, as they are predominately unidirectional and homoplasy-free. However, previous analysis of phylogenetic relationships using these repeating elements has been limited to a small number of isolated repeats among relatively few organisms. As a highly repetitive sequence, the Alu element and its associated subfamilies can provide detailed analysis on evolutionary divergence among species in the Order Primates. This study identified shared sequences as Alu repeating elements that were conserved in both location and base-pair sequence between the primate genomes of interest. These shared sequences, derived from the Genome Library at the University of California San Diego, were analyzed to construct individual phylogenetic trees for each of the 49 Alu subfamilies. As this method solely requires the sequence analysis of available primate genomes, this serves as a cheaper and more time-efficient approach to phylogenetic tree construction for the Order Primates relative to biochemical and anatomical analysis.

      Sun, Christina; Awad, Mohamed E; Jernigan, Joshua; College of Science and Mathematics; Department of Oral Biology; Dental College of Georgia; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
      The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the validity of using preoperative serum C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (CTX) levels as predictive factor of increased risk of developing medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in patients on bisphosphonate (BP) therapy who undergo invasive dental procedures. A search was conducted through PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science, following PRISMA guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Meta-analysis was conducted on the risk ratio. The methodological index for nonrandomized studies (MINORS) and Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) checklist were used to assess quality. Eighteen clinical trials, involving 2301 patients were included. Most patients received Alendronate or Risedronate for an average of 62.14 months. The average serum CTX level in BP-treated patients before surgery was 217.67 pg/ml. Meta-analysis demonstrated that the cutoff in CTX level (150 pg/ml) was not predictive of BRONJ risk. The sensitivity of CTX value <150 pg/ml was 34.26% and the specificity was 77.08%. The use of CTX to diagnose BRONJ risk following dental procedures in bisphosphonate-treated patients is not justified. Further studies are needed to develop other reliable biomarkers.
    • Seventeen Year Cicada

      Panzella, Cynthia; Department of Communications (Augusta University, 2018-05)
    • Severe Compartment Syndrome Following Extravasation of Fluids in a Critically Ill Neonate

      Martinez-Lu, Kianfa; Weatherred, Ted; Florentino-Pineda, Ivan; Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine (Society for Pediatric Anesthesia, 2009-03)
      Intravenous therapy is generally a safe and effective way to administer different therapies to patients of all ages. Despite its ubiquitous use in modern medicine, it is not devoid of complications. Hematoma formation, phlebitis, infection, and tissue infiltration are some common complications of the use of peripheral IV catheters. Here we report a case in which peripheral IV fluid extravasation caused severe compartment syndrome in a critically ill preterm neonate undergoing exploratory laparotomy in the NICU.
    • Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

      Sajadi, Kamran P.; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A.; Department of Surgery; Department of Pathology (2009-01-06)
      A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.
    • Sex Differences in Renal Inner Medullary Nitric Oxide Synthase Regulation and Nitric Oxide Synthase Contribution to Blood Pressure Control in Hypertension

      Brinson, Krystal N.; Department of Physiology (2013-06)
      There are sex differences in the development of hypertension with young males developing a more severe pathology faster than age-matched females; however, with advancing age this “protection” in females is lost. The mechanisms responsible for the sex difference in hypertension are unclear but the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO)/NO synthase (NOS) pathway which is important in blood pressure (BP) regulation has been implicated. Systemic inhibition of NOS using L-NAME (2, 5, and 7 mg/kg/day at 4 days per dose in drinking water) in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) resulted in dose-dependent increases in BP measured via telemetry; however, females exhibited greater increases in BP than males. Treatment of male and female SHR chronically with L-NAME at a dose of 7 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly increased BP in both sexes, however, a previous exposure to L-NAME increased BP sensitivity to chronic NOS inhibition in females exclusively; this confirmed our hypothesis that female SHR are more dependent on NOS for BP control compared to male. Important for BP control, the renal inner medulla (IM) is the only region of the kidney to exhibit sex differences in NOS enzymatic activity. Female SHR have greater total NOS activity than males and we observed that it is not due to differences in phosphorylation or protein expression. Therefore, we examined potential molecular mechanisms to explain the sexual dimorphism in renal IM NOS activity. The endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been indicated in hypertension. However, HPLC analysis of ADMA and the essential NOS substrate L-arginine were equal between the sexes in plasma and renal IM of SHR and thus do not contribute to the sex differences in renal IM NOS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential NOS cofactor and decreased BH4 availability has been indicated to be elevated in patients and animal models with essential hypertension. BH4 levels can be decreased via oxidation and male SHR have higher levels of oxidative stress compared to females. HPLC analysis of biopterin levels in control and tempol (antioxidant) treated SHR showed that female SHR have greater total biopterin, BH4 and BH2 levels than males in the renal IM and that these sex differences were dependent on the presence of oxidative stress. Studies next examined if greater biopterin levels in females translated into greater NOS activity in females. In vitro analysis of NOS enzymatic activity confirmed that greater oxidative stress and deficiency of BH4 of male SHR in the renal IM resulted in lower levels of NOS activity relative to female SHR. In addition, in vitro analysis of renal IM NOS activity revealed that 1) female SHR exhibit a sex hormone-dependent increase in renal IM NOS activity from sexually immature, pre-hypertensive age to sexually mature, hypertensive age that is not evident in male SHR and 2) that the ability of female sex hormones to stimulate NOS activity is time-dependent. In conclusion, the combination of BH4 deficiency in males caused by elevated oxidative stress and the ability of female sex hormones to stimulate NOS activity in female SHR and not ADMA or L-arginine, contribute to the sexual dimorphism in renal IM NOS activity. In addition, differences in sensitivity to NOS levels in SHR aid in creating sex differences in BP control.
    • Sex, Swimsuits, and Sports Illustrated: Visually Analyzing the Evolution of Style, Skin, and Place in the SI Swimsuit Edition

      ConKright, Lucia; Department of Communications (Augusta University, 2017-05)
      Of the countless magazines in circulation in the United States, the widespread popularity of the Sports Illustrated is obvious; in fact, one can hardly pass a newsstand without seeing one. Since 1964, when model Babette March appeared on the cover of SI in a white bikini against the tropical backdrop of an island paradise, the SI Swimsuit Edition has graced shelves annually during the winter months. Since receiving “special issue” status in 1997, the magazine has become the single best-selling issue in the magazine franchise of Time Inc., selling more than one million copies on newsstands and boasting more than three million subscribers (Spector, D., 2013). In 2016, the SI Swimsuit Edition once again appeared on shelves nationwide; this time with three separate covers. Notable about these covers was, for the first time in the history of the edition, the inclusion of a plus-size model and a professional athlete, both a noticeable step away from the traditional models featured on the cover of the Swimsuit Edition in years past. Whether a signifier of changing times or a precursor to evolving standards of magazine models, the 2016 covers of the SI Swimsuit Edition marked a dramatic change in the magazine. In investigating this development, this study covers the history of the SI Swimsuit Edition magazine and asks the question: how has the magazine changed in terms of swimwear, setting, and cover model from the first cover in 1964 to the three covers released in 2016? [Introduction]
    • Sex-independent neuroprotection with minocycline after experimental thromboembolic stroke

      Hoda, Md Nasrul; Li, Weiguo; Ahmad, Ajmal; Ogbi, Safia; Zemskova, Marina A; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Ergul, Adviye; Hill, William D; Hess, David C.; Sazonova, Irina Y; et al. (2011-12-16)
      Background: Minocycline provides neurovascular protection reducing acute cerebral injury. However, it is unclear whether minocycline is effective in females. We tested minocycline in both sexes and aged animals using a novel embolic stroke model in mice that closely mimics acute thromboembolic stroke in humans.