• Rab proteins in gastric parietal cells: evidence for the membrane recycling hypothesis.

      Calhoun, Benjamin C; Goldenring, J R; Department of Medicine (1997-07-08)
      The gastric parietal cell secretes large quantities of HCl into the lumen of the gastric gland in response to secretagogues such as histamine. In the membrane recycling hypothesis, this secretory activity requires the trafficking of the gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase to the cell surface from intracellular tubulovesicles. The Rab subclass of small GTP-binding proteins is thought to confer specificity to vesicle transport throughout the secretory pathway, and previous investigations established that Rab11 is highly expressed in gastric parietal cells. Recent discoveries in intra-Golgi transport and neuronal synaptic vesicle fusion have fortuitously converged on an evolutionarily conserved protein complex involved in vesicle docking and fusion. Recent results indicate that Rab11 is involved in the apical targeting of vesicles in parietal cells and other epithelial cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. In support of the membrane recycling hypothesis, Rab co-segregates with H+/K(+)-ATPase in parietal cells. The presence of Rab11 on tubulovesicles supports a role for this Rab protein in recycling vesicle trafficking.
    • Rabbit Anatomy: A Brief Photographic Atlas and Dissection Guide, Part 1: Muscular System (Second Edition)

      Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Ruggiero Wagner, Lisa; Augusta University, Department of Biological Sciences; Clemson University, Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2020)
    • Rabbit Anatomy: A Brief Photographic Atlas and Dissection Guide, Part 2: Cardiovascular System (Second Edition)

      Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Ruggiero Wagner, Lisa; Augusta University, Department of Biological Sciences; Clemson University, Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2020)
    • Rac1 Activation Driven by 14-3-3f Dimerization Promotes Prostate Cancer Cell-Matrix Interactions, Motility and Transendothelial Migration

      Goc, Anna; Abdalla, Maha; Al-Azayzih, Ahmad; Somanath, Payaningal R.; Department of Medicine (2012-07-13)
      14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed dimeric adaptor proteins that have emerged as key mediators of many cell signaling pathways in multiple cell types. Its effects are mainly mediated by binding to selective phosphoserine/threonine proteins. The importance of 14-3-3 proteins in cancer have only started to become apparent and its exact role in cancer progression as well as the mechanisms by which 14-3-3 proteins mediate cancer cell function remain unknown. While protein 14-3-3s is widely accepted as a tumor suppressor, 14-3-3f, b and c isoforms have been shown to have tumor promoting effects. Despite the importance of 14-3-3 family in mediating various cell processes, the exact role and mechanism of 14-3-3f remain unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the role of protein 14-3-3f in prostate cancer cell motility and transendothelial migration using biochemical, molecular biology and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing approaches as well as cell based functional assays. Our study indicated that expression with wild-type protein 14-3-3f significantly enhanced Rac activity in PC3 cells. In contrast, expression of dimer-resistant mutant of protein 14-3-3f (DM-14-3-3) inhibited Rac activity and associated phosphorylation of p21 activated kinase-1 and 2. Expression with wild-type 14-3-3f or constitutively active Rac1 enhanced extracellular matrix recognition, lamellipodia formation, cell migration and trans-endothelial migration by PC3 cells. In contrast, expression with DM 14-3-3f or DN-Rac1 in PC3 cells significantly inhibited these cell functions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that 14-3-3f enhances prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration in vitro via activation of Rac1-GTPase and is an important target for therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer.
    • Race and Income Association with Health Service Utilization for Veterans with Heart Failure

      Landrum, Laurie G.; Department of Nursing (2012-07)
      Disproportionate heart failure outcomes exist for Blacks in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) despite equitable access and financial barrier minmization. No study has examined the association of race and income with health service utilization for veterans with heart failure. This observational study investigated race and income associations with readmissions, bed days of care, and emergency room (ER) visits for veterans with heart failure after controlling for predisposing, enabling, and illness severity factors. Medical record data were collected for 149 veterans telemonitored for heart failure during 2008-2011. Heart failure symptoms severity and comorbidities were measured using investigator-adapted scales based on the New York Heart Association IIV scale and the Charlson comorbidity index. Heart failure related outcomes (30 day, 90 day, 1 year, and total readmissions, ER visits, and total bed days of care) were modeled controlling for age, marital status, and heart failure and comorbidity severity. Of patients younger than 60 years of age, 18% were Black compared to 11% of Whites, Χ2 (2, N=149) = 5.15, p= .02. Blacks had a much higher comorbidity prevalence than Whites, p = .000. Ischemic heart disease and chronic kidney disease rates were double and triple national VHA rates, respectively, among Whites and Blacks. Race did not predict readmissions, bed days of care, or ER visits. The odds of a readmission or bed day of care ever decreased by 38% and 43%, respectively, for married men, p = .03. The odds of a readmission or bed day of care ever due to severe heart failure—compared to less severe heart failure—were four to five times higher, respectively, p ≤ .004. Income increased the odds of total bed days of care by 14%, p = .00, holding race constant. Overall, the sample experienced far fewer readmissions, bed days of care, or ER visits, compared to VHA national rates, but sample size may have limited accurate comparisons.
    • Racial Dissimilarities as a Social Determinant of Health Outcomes: Evidence from Counties in the State of Georgia

      Lee, Divesia; Hull College of Business; Department of English & Foreign Languages; Medcalfe, Simon; Slade, Catherine; Hoffman, Todd; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
      Social determinants of health account for about 50 percent of health outcomes- more than any other category, yet is the most understudied, therefore warranting further investigation. We contend that within social determinants of health, analysis of racial segregation is of importance. Racial segregation is a structural form of racism, where people of similar race live in communities apart from people of other races. Prior studies have used a dissimilarity index to measure racial segregation and its impact on health outcomes, and has suggested that racial residential segregation has a negative impact on health outcomes, but none of these studies have focused on county level data or the State of Georgia in particular. Using a dataset from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, supplemented by other public health and demographic data for all counties in Georgia, we use regression analysis to model the relationship between segregation and various health outcomes. A variety of social determinants of health were analyzed ranging from factors of economic stability, neighborhood and physical environment, and education, to aspects of the healthcare system. Initial results suggest that racial segregation relates to health outcomes, but it depends on the health outcomes being measured. Conclusions are pending further quantitative analysis.
    • Racial Segregation as a Social Determinant of Health Outcomes: Evidence from Counties in the State of Georgia

      Lee, Divesia; Department of Finance and Economics, Department of English & Foreign Languages (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Social determinants of health account for about 50 percent of health outcomes- more than any other category, yet is the most understudied, therefore warranting further investigation. We contend that within social determinants of health, analysis of racial segregation is of importance. Racial segregation is a structural form of racism, where people of similar race live in communities apart from people of other races. Prior studies have used a dissimilarity index to measure racial segregation and its impact on health outcomes, and has suggested that racial residential segregation has a negative impact on health outcomes, but none of these studies have focused on county level data or the State of Georgia in particular. Using a dataset from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, supplemented by other public health and demographic data for all counties in Georgia, we use regression analysis to model the relationship between segregation and various health outcomes. A variety of social determinants of health were analyzed ranging from factors of economic stability, neighborhood and physical environment, and education, to aspects of the healthcare system. Initial results suggest that racial segregation relates to health outcomes, but it depends on the health outcomes being measured. Conclusions are pending further quantitative analysis.
    • A Randomized Preventive Rehabilitation Trial in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated with Chemoradiotherapy: Feasibility, Compliance, and Short-term Effects

      van der Molen, Lisette; van Rossum, Maya A.; Burkhead, Lori M.; Smeele, Ludi E.; Rasch, Coen R. N.; Hilgers, Frans J. M.; Department of Otolaryngology (2010-07-11)
      Keywords: Head and neck cancer
    • Ranking analysis of F-statistics for microarray data.

      Tan, Yuan-De; Fornage, Myriam; Xu, Hongyan; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (2008-04-15)
      BACKGROUND: Microarray technology provides an efficient means for globally exploring physiological processes governed by the coordinated expression of multiple genes. However, identification of genes differentially expressed in microarray experiments is challenging because of their potentially high type I error rate. Methods for large-scale statistical analyses have been developed but most of them are applicable to two-sample or two-condition data. RESULTS: We developed a large-scale multiple-group F-test based method, named ranking analysis of F-statistics (RAF), which is an extension of ranking analysis of microarray data (RAM) for two-sample t-test. In this method, we proposed a novel random splitting approach to generate the null distribution instead of using permutation, which may not be appropriate for microarray data. We also implemented a two-simulation strategy to estimate the false discovery rate. Simulation results suggested that it has higher efficiency in finding differentially expressed genes among multiple classes at a lower false discovery rate than some commonly used methods. By applying our method to the experimental data, we found 107 genes having significantly differential expressions among 4 treatments at <0.7% FDR, of which 31 belong to the expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 76 are unique genes who have known functions in the brain or central nervous system and belong to six major functional groups. CONCLUSION: Our method is suitable to identify differentially expressed genes among multiple groups, in particular, when sample size is small.
    • Rapamycin, an evolving role in up-regulation of autophagy to improve stroke outcome and increase neuronal survival to stroke type injuries

      Buckley, Kathleen; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2015-10)
      Rapamycin was shown to reduce infarct size in a non-reperfusion and a slow reperfusion model of murine stroke; it also improved neurological score and survival in the slow-reperfusion model. The rapamycin improvement was 50 percent greater than that observed with chloroquine. In HT22 mouse hippocampal neurons, rapamycin was shown to improve survival to an oxidative/reperfusion injury with H2O2 and a hypoxic/ischemic injury with oxygen and glucose deprivation to a larger degree than chloroquine. Rapamycin treatment increased punctate microtubule light chain associated protein 3, LC3, in the HT22 neurons in an uninjured and oxygen and glucose deprivation injured HT22 neurons compared to untreated neurons. Finally, genetic knockdown of autophagy with shRNA to autophagy protein 5, ATG5, abrogated the rapamycin’s positive effect on survival to injury.
    • Rapid Reversal of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Associated Staining in Subcompartments of Mouse Neostriatum during the Emergence of Behaviour

      Lee, Hyunchul; Leamey, Catherine A.; Sawatari, Atomu; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2008-08-20)
      Background: The neostriatum, the mouse homologue of the primate caudate/putamen, is the input nucleus for the basal ganglia, receiving both cortical and dopaminergic input to each of its sub-compartments, the striosomes and matrix. The coordinated activation of corticostriatal pathways is considered vital for motor and cognitive abilities, yet the mechanisms which underlie the generation of these circuits are unknown. The early and specific targeting of striatal subcompartments by both corticostriatal and nigrostriatal terminals suggests activity-independent mechanisms, such as axon guidance cues, may play a role in this process. Candidates include the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) family of glycoproteins which have roles not only in axon guidance, but also in the maturation and stability of neural circuits where they are expressed in lattice-like perineuronal nets (PNNs).
    • Ray Abundance and Diversity in the Satilla River

      Silliman, Brennan; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-12)
      Over the past 100 years, the Satilla River has been cut several times for logging and navigational purposes. The most notable cut is Noyes Cut, located adjacent to Umbrella and Dover Creeks. Due to changes in local economic pursuits, Noyes Cut is not used except by a few local fishermen and has potentially altered water flow and salinity gradients. Ultimately, this affects habitats of animals, such as rays. The Satilla River is home to 52 different kinds of species of saltwater and freshwater fish. These include sunfish, sharks, catfish, seatrout, and tarpon (Kenakrow, 2020). Rays are found worldwide and are the most diverse of cartilaginous fish; they play a vital role in determining the health of an ecosystem by influencing/controlling where certain fish, mollusk, and crustacean populations are. Rays can indicate if an ecosystem is in distress. Four locations in the Satilla River were sampled using experimental gill nets, otter trawls, and a multi-parameter water quality probe from July 2014 through September 2019. All rays were identified by species with total length and disc width recorded to the nearest centimeter (cm). At least 3 species of rays (possibly more), which include the Atlantic Stingray, the Smooth Butterfly Ray, and the Southern Stingray, call this area home. Additionally, this five year data set will be compared to a creel survey currently being conducted on the Satilla River. We hope to make comparisons between our 2018-2019 sampling year and the 2019-2020 creel survey. Since rays are an indicator species, it may be possible to determine if they’ve been affected by Noyes Cut. Noyes Cut was originally constructed around 1910 as a way for Edward Noyes to float logs to his lumber mill business. He used this waterway until 1933 when the U.S. Army Corps seized it and deepened the cut as an inland waterway. Over several decades, channel sedimentation has gradually affected salinity gradients which ultimately altered the natural water circulation patterns within the estuary.
    • Re-examining Metoclopramide’s Role in Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and/or Vomiting

      Masiongale, Amy; Garvin, Jane; Murphy, Marguerite; Looney, Stephen W. (2015-11)
      Postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV) continue to be two of the most undesirable and distressing complications following general anesthesia, affecting 20-30% of all surgical patients and up to 70% of patients with multiple known risk factors. Clinical guidelines recommend identifying PONV prophylactic interventions based on risk score. While the guidelines recommend several antiemetics, metoclopramide was not recommended. However, evidence used to support the guidelines is no longer considered valid. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to re-examine the use of metoclopramide and describe the incidence of subsequent PONV stratified by risk scores among adult ambulatory surgical patients.
    • Reaching At-Risk African-American Women for Diabetes Prevention: Fit Body and Soul

      Garvin, Jane; Williams, Lovoria B.; Joshua, Thomas V.; Sattin, Richard W. (2013-05)
      Aims: Describe baseline predictors of diabetes in African American women enrolled in the faith-based diabetes prevention program: Fit Body and Soul (FBAS); Describe retention of the women over the one-year study
    • The Real "Monster" in Frankenstein

      Urizar, David O.; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University Libraries, 2016-10)
      The story of Frankenstein is typically seen as a battle between Victor Frankenstein and the “monster” of the story. However I argue that that the real “monster” of the story is in fact Victor Frankenstein who is suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and that the “monster” is really just a delusions that Victor uses to cope with the idea that he in fact is the killer of the story. This concept is evident in the fact that no one in the story has ever seen both Victor Frankenstein and the “monster” alive in the same place. The characteristics of the “monster’ also point towards the idea that the “monster” could not possibly exist. Even the way that Victor acts throughout the book point to the idea that he does not really care for the safety of his loved ones. Overall the actions that play out in the story point towards the idea that Victor Frankenstein is the real “monster” of the story.
    • Rebecca Harding Davis: Spatial, Gender, and Labor Roles in Literary Realism

      Humphrey, Katie; Department of English and Foreign Languages (Augusta University, 2017-05)
      Rebecca Harding Davis, a West Virginia writer, explores how conceptions of gender shifted in the United States, especially during the Industrial Revolution. Davis published her novel in six separate issues of The Atlantic literary magazine from October of 1861 until March of 1862 in monthly installments. These pieces were eventually published as a novel entitled Margret Howth in 1862. This story explores the life of the young woman after whom the book is named. Davis’s approach emphasizes the recording of daily life as it is happening, commenting especially on the relationship between women and labor during the early Civil War period in the United States. Davis’s focus on the daily details of life allows her to bring attention to gender and labor inequalities in the nineteenth century Midwest. Davis’s female characters depict how women felt unable to make decisions, especially if their decisions brought them out of their home and away from the family. She also brings light to women’s treatment from both men and the upper class, who marked them as unable to do work outside the home because they believed they were physically and emotionally built only for domestic life. [Introduction]
    • Reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is expressed in placenta and yolk sac, as well as in cells of the developing forebrain, hindbrain, neural tube, craniofacial region, eye, limb buds and heart.

      Maddox, Dennis M; Manlapat, Anna K; Roon, Penny; Prasad, Puttur D; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Department of Ophthalmology (2003-10-29)
      BACKGROUND: Folate is essential for cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration. As mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo, tightly regulated cellular uptake processes have evolved to sustain sufficient levels of intracellular tetrahydrofolate cofactors to support biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and some amino acids (serine, methionine). Though reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is one of the major proteins mediating folate transport, knowledge of the developmental expression of RFC is lacking. We utilized in situ hybridization and immunolocalization to determine the developmental distribution of RFC message and protein, respectively. RESULTS: In the mouse, RFC transcripts and protein are expressed in the E10.0 placenta and yolk sac. In the E9.0 to E11.5 mouse embryo RFC is widely detectable, with intense signal localized to cell populations in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart. During early development, RFC is expressed throughout the eye, but by E12.5, RFC protein becomes localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical studies show a statistical decrease in the number of neural tube defects, craniofacial abnormalities, cardiovascular defects and limb abnormalities detected in offspring of female patients given supplementary folate during pregnancy. The mechanism, however, by which folate supplementation ameliorates the occurrence of developmental defects is unclear. The present work demonstrates that RFC is present in placenta and yolk sac and provides the first evidence that it is expressed in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart during organogenesis. These findings suggest that rapidly dividing cells in the developing neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart may be particularly susceptible to folate deficiency.
    • Reducing Tobacco Dependence: Evaluation of Tobacco Cessation Education on a Stroke Unit

      Cook-McKnight, Crystal; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2016-03)
      Background: Tobacco use is the number one preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States.It is a leading cause of cerebrovascular disease, and tobacco users are three times more likely to have a stroke compared to non-tobacco users. Georgia is among the highest rates of tobacco use and stroke in the U.S. Evidence based tobacco cessation interventions are available; however, they are are underutilized by clinicians. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to evaluate if a brief educational intervention related to tobacco cesssation interventions compared to the current practice impacted the attitudes, beliefs, intentions and knowledge of tobacco cessation counseling of healthcare professionals on a stroke unit.Methods: A 45 minute presentation based on a guideline with the most current recommendations was provided to clinicians on a stroke unit. A pre-post survey evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and intentions of 29 nurses and a respiratory therapist related to tobacco cessation interventions in a tertiary care hospital in Georgia.Results:Tobacco counseling and treatment knowledge increased significantly from pre- to post-training. Average correct answers post survey was 76% versus the pre survey of 24%. Attitudes, beliefs and intentions were moderately correlated to improved self confidence. Conclusion: Overall, healthcare professionals exhibited improved tobacco cessation knowledge. Attitudes, beliefs and intentions were moderately impacted.
    • Reducing Waist Circumference among African Americans in the Fit Body and Soul Study

      Garvin, Jane; Sattin, Richard W.; Looney, Stephen W. (2014-11)
      This study aimed to determine if waist circumference decreased following the FBAS intervention when compared with the health education comparison group.
    • Reese Library Infographic

      Halder, Bithika; Department of English and Foreign Languages (Spr. 2019)
      A class assignment presents an infographic of Reese Library.