• "I'll Take My Artifacts with Tea": Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century British Archaeology

      Young, Rachel; Department of History, Anthropology, & Philosophy (Augusta University, 2018-05)
      This project analyzes the research doneby British archaeologists in the nineteenth and early to mid-twentieth centuries in Mesopotamia, as well as their interpretations of their findings, their motivations for research, and their reasons for how they interpreted what they found. This is achieved by examining the primary sources of writings of people such as Austen Henry Layard, George Smith, Gertrude Bell, and Henry Rawlinson. Most current research on the relationship between Britain and the Near East focuses on modern topics relating to political science, topics such as wars, terrorism, and oil crises. Because of the current wanton destruction of artifacts by terrorist groups and the instability their terrorism has caused in the Near East, it is crucial to analyze the circumstances surrounding the original discoveries and interpretations of these pieces. In order to explore and understand the artifacts found in Mesopotamia in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this project analyzes the writings of British archaeologists and examines the sociopolitical environment in Britain at the time of these excavations. Understanding these motivations through studying primary sources is crucial to preserving the identity and knowledge available from these artifacts.
    • I'll Take My Artifacts with Tea: Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century British Archaeology in Mesopotamia

      Young, Rachel; Department of History, Anthropology, & Philosophy; Bratton, Angela; Department of History, Anthropology, & Philosophy; Turner, Wendy; Department of History, Anthropology, & Philosophy; Augusta University (2018-02-12)
      This project analyzes the research doneby British archaeologists in the nineteenth and early to mid-twentieth centuries in Mesopotamia, as well as their interpretations of their findings, their motivations for research, and their reasons for how they interpreted what they found. This is achieved by examining the primary sources of writings of people such as Austen Henry Layard, George Smith, Gertrude Bell, and Henry Rawlinson. Most current research on the relationship between Britain and the Near East focuses on modern topics relating to political science, topics such as wars, terrorism, and oil crises. Because of the current wanton destruction of artifacts by terrorist groups and the instability their terrorism has caused in the Near East, it is crucial to analyze the circumstances surrounding the original discoveries and interpretations of these pieces. In order to explore and understand the artifacts found in Mesopotamia in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this project analyzes the writings of British archaeologists and examines the sociopolitical environment in Britain at the time of these excavations. Understanding these motivations through studying primary sources is crucial to preserving the identity and knowledge available from these artifacts.
    • Ibuprofen Conjugates as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Drug Candidates

      Wade, Margaret; Department of Chemistry and Physics (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Inflammation is a common immune response to harmful pathogens or damaged cells. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NAIDs) are commonly used to treat inflammation and pain. These drugs can also be used to treat inflammation due to diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease. NSAIDs accomplish this through the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme systems. Selectivity for the inhibition of the COX-2 pathway is an aim in the development of NSAIDs. The COX-2 enzyme predominates at sites of inflammation and releases enzymes responsible for vasodilation. While the inhibition of the COX-1 pathway results in adverse side effects, such as gastric lesions and perforation. The current drug design process has focused on modifying existing NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen. In the current study, conjugates of ibuprofen were developed by incorporating triazole ring in the conjugated molecules through a ‘click’ chemistry approach. The anti-inflammatory properties of the conjugates were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method.
    • ICE Operations and Their Effects on Latin American Immigration: Raids of the 21st Century

      Lopez, Jasmin (Augusta University, 2021-05)
      Immigration has shaped the United States’ culture. Many believe that immigrants are the backbone of the U.S. nation; however, in the past decades, citizens continue to use the term ‘immigrant’ negatively— those living for generations on United States soil often look down upon new immigrants, socially excluding them. Adversely, the events of 9/11 created a divide within the nation; those who were different became feared. In response, on March 1, 2003, the government finalized U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) under the newly formed Department of Homeland Security, birthing many benefits and consequences to the United States. Despite government plans to protect ‘legal’ immigration while minimizing ‘illegal’ immigration, ICE pinpoints Latino individuals, damaging not just the family unit but also community relations.
    • The Identification of Novel Genes in Normosmic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (nHH)

      Smith, Hannah; College of Education; Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology; Layman, Lawrence; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
      Characterized by delayed or absent sexual development, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a disorder that includes the deficient production, secretion, or action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Producing neurons in the brain, GnRH directly controls sexual development during puberty. Misplacement of the GnRH producing neurons leads to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which is divided into two categories: Kallmann syndrome (KS) and normosmic IHH (nHH). While both KS and nIHH, defined as the absence or delay of puberty, low gonadotropins and sex steroids, are similar, KS also includes the absence or impairment of smell. Whole exome sequencing (WES) is used to examine protein-coding regions of the human genome in order to detect genetic variants that could be causative. Sanger sequencing is used to confirm variants identified by WES. Using WES and Sanger sequencing, we were able to identify new genetic variants within the nHH and KS patient populations. In this study, our goal was to identify pathogenic variants in known and novel nHH/KS genes, focusing efforts on rare, loss-of-function variants in: WDR11, GLI2, CTNNA1, ANKHD1, SEMA6A, PRRC2C, EHBP1, and RIF1 genes. This study broadens our understanding of pathogenic variants in known and novel IHH genes that may contribute to the disease phenotype.
    • Identification of Regulatory Elements in a Conserved Upstream Region of the Gene Encoding Interphotoreceptor Retinoid-Binding Protein (IRBP)

      Lu, Haiyan; Department of Ophthalmology (1999-06)
      (First Paragraph) IRBP is a large, single-subunit extracellular glycolipoprotein found in the interphotoreceptor matrix between the photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium cell layer (Fig. 1.). The protein is synthesized and secreted by the photoreceptor rods and cones, as well as pinealocytes, of all vertebrates. The molecular weight of human IRBP (1230 residues) is 133,400 daltons. This protein consists of four homologous segments of approximately 300 residues each. Each segment contains highly conserved hydrophobic domains among species. Ligands identified as bound to IRBP include retinoid isomers and fatty acids, and IRBP can also bind cholesterol, a-tocopherol and retinoic acid. The ability of IRBP to bind various retinoid isomers, fatty acids and many other hydrophobic ligands suggests multiple functions in the retina .
    • Identification of the CAP1-Binding Domain of Adenylyl Cyclase 3 in Humans

      Gunby, Kimberly; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      My research is aimed at finding the cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) binding domain on human adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3). Previous studies in our lab show that the interaction between CAP1 and AC3 inhibits migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. The inhibitory mechanism is thought to involve the binding of AC3 and CAP1, causing the inhibition of globular-actin polymerization needed for filopodia formation and cell motility. A better understanding of this interaction will help facilitate the discovery for drugs that inhibit the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. To locate the binding region, we constructed mutants of WT AC3 plasmid using a Site-Directed Mutagenesis kit. We substituted a highly conserved proline residue at position 307 for an arginine residue (P307R) and a glutamate residue at position 308 for an alanine residue (E308A). The mutations were confirmed by sequencing. We then transfected pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 with WT and mutant AC3 plasmids and confirmed the expression using Western-blotting. To test whether the mutated AC3 could still interact with CAP1, we performed co-immunoprecipitation. We found that the residues proline and arginine in AC3 are not required for the interaction with CAP1. Further substitutions of other conserved residues are underway.
    • IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE GENES INVOLVED IN SYNDROMIC AND NON-SYNDROMIC INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN CONSANGUINEOUS PAKISTANI FAMILIES

      Brown, Jason; Department of Biological Sciences; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology; Augusta University (2018-02-12)
      Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by substantial limitations in intellectual functioningbefore the age of 18. One of its causes is genetic etiology. Around 300 genesarebelieved to beinvolved in autosomal recessive ID (ARID). It is thought that there are still many more genes as yet undiscovered. Consanguineous families have higher rates of autosomal recessive disorders and so make a good population in which to study ARID. Phenol-chloroform extraction was performed on the bloodof five consanguineous Pakistani families with syndromic and non-syndromic ID to obtain DNA. The DNA wasgenotyped using an SNP microarray and homozygosity mapping was used to analyze the genotyping data to provide candidate regions within the chromosomes likely to contain genes involved in ID. A review of current literaturewasperformed to identify the most likely candidate genes among the identified regions in each family. In the most likely region from each family, 36 genes in total were identified as candidates for involvement with ID, with 17 identified as stronger candidates. This paves the way for future studies to provide more evidence for causation. DNA sequencing could be used to identify potentially causative mutations, which could then be tested in animal models.
    • Identifying candidates genes involved in syndromic and non-syndromic intellectual diability in consanguineous Pakistani families

      Brown, Jason; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2018-05)
      Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by substantial limitations in intellectual functioningbefore the age of 18. One of its causes is genetic etiology. Around 300 genesarebelieved to beinvolved in autosomal recessive ID (ARID). It is thought that there are still many more genes as yet undiscovered. Consanguineous families have higher rates of autosomal recessive disorders and so make a good population in which to study ARID. Phenol-chloroform extraction was performed on the bloodof five consanguineous Pakistani families with syndromic and non-syndromic ID to obtain DNA. The DNA wasgenotyped using an SNP microarray and homozygosity mapping was used to analyze the genotyping data to provide candidate regions within the chromosomes likely to contain genes involved in ID. A review of current literaturewasperformed to identify the most likely candidate genes among the identified regions in each family. In the most likely region from each family, 36 genes in total were identified as candidates for involvement with ID, with 17 identified as stronger candidates. This paves the way for future studies to provide more evidence for causation. DNA sequencing could be used to identify potentially causative mutations, which could then be tested in animal models.
    • Identifying the Function of Nasal Embryonic LHRH factor (NELF) in Immortalized GnRH Neurons

      Ko, Eun Kyung; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (7/30/2018)
      Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is crucial for the proper function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, puberty, and reproduction. When GnRH neuron migration or GnRH regulation is impaired, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism results. Mutations in the gene for nasal embryonic LHRH factor (NELF) have been identified in GnRH-deficient humans. NELF is a predominantly nuclear protein that may participate in gene transcription, but it is unlikely to be a transcription factor. Thus, our hypothesis is that NELF may indirectly regulate transcription via protein-protein interaction within a transcription complex. To address this question, RNA was extracted from NLT GnRH neuronal cells following either stable Nelf knockdown or scrambled control and subjected to cDNA arrays. Expression of transcription factors and cell migration gene expression was most commonly altered. Members of the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, including Stat1, Stat2, Stat5a, Jak2, Irf7 and Irf9, were significantly down-regulated as assessed by RT-qPCR. Protein levels of STAT1, phospho-STAT1, and JAK2 were reduced, but the levels of phospho-JAK2 were not. These findings suggest a role for NELF in the regulation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, which has important functions in GnRH neurons. Jacob, the rat orthologue of NELF, is phosphorylated at the serine 180 residue by phosphorylated Erk1/2 which is activated by synaptic NMDA receptor activation and then translocates to the nucleus. Phosphorylated Jacob in the nucleus interacts with CREB and regulates the expression of BDNF, which is associated with synaptic plasticity in the brain. Proteins, such as caldendrin, importin-α and α-interxin, have been identified as binding proteins with Jacob. However, binding proteins, phosphorylation sites and/or kinases for NELF have not yet been reported. To demonstrate novel and putative functions of NELF in the nucleus, identification of binding proteins and phosphorylation sites is required. To address this question, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), mass spectrometry and in vitro kinase assays were performed. We found six putative binding proteins that could interact with NELF, including 14-3-3ε. We also identified phosphorylation sites on NELF, including serine 288, which could be phosphorylated by AKT1 kinase. These new findings will be helpful to understand the function of NELF in the nucleus
    • IFN-c Upregulates Survivin and Ifi202 Expression to Induce Survival and Proliferation of Tumor-Specific T Cells

      Zimmerman, Mary; Yang, Dafeng; Hu, Xiaolin; Liu, Feiyan; Singh, Nagendra; Browning, Darren; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Chandler, Phillip; Choubey, Divaker; Abrams, Scott I.; et al. (2010-11-22)
      Background: A common procedure in human cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) adoptive transfer immunotherapy is to expand tumor-specific CTLs ex vivo using CD3 mAb prior to transfer. One of the major obstacles of CTL adoptive immunotherapy is a lack of CTL persistence in the tumor-bearing host after transfer. The aim of this study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of stimulation conditions on proliferation and survival of tumor-specific CTLs.
    • Imiquimod 3.75% Cream Applied Daily to Treat Anogenital Warts: Combined Results from Women in Two Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Studies

      Baker, David A.; Ferris, Daron G.; Martens, Mark G.; Fife, Kenneth H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Edwards, Libby; Nelson, Anita; Ault, Kevin A; Trofatter, Kenneth F.; Liu, Tiepu; et al. (2011-08-24)
    • Immune regulation of tumor cell plasticity: A promising molecular target in breast cancer metastasis

      LEE, EUNMI; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology / Cancer Center (2018-11-29)
      It is widely accepted that phenotypic plasticity of malignant cells is required during metastatic cascade. However, the specific mechanism of how the tumor microenvironment regulates tumor cell plasticity in metastasis is under intense investigation. We demonstrate here that monocytic and granulocytic subsets of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), hereafter called mMDSCs and gMDSCs, infiltrate in the primary tumor and distant organs with different time kinetics and regulate spatiotemporal tumor plasticity. Using co-culture experiments and mouse transcriptome analyses in syngeneic mouse models, we provide evidence that tumor-infiltrating mMDSCs facilitate dissemination from the primary site by inducing the EMT/CSC phenotype. In contrast, pulmonary gMDSC infiltrates support metastatic growth by reverting the EMT/CSC phenotype and promoting tumor cell proliferation. We also observe that lung-derived gMDSCs isolated from tumor-bearing mice enhance metastatic growth of already disseminated tumor cells. Our ongoing studies reveal that calprotectin (S100A8 and S100A9 heterotetramer) is an important regulator of gMDSCs, which play a critical role in promoting breast cancer metastasis by inducing MET-like CSCs as well as suppressing anti-tumor immunity within the pre-metastatic niche. Furthermore, we develop a novel gMDSC-targeting compound that potentially binds to calprotectin and validate its therapeutic utility in a preclinical breast cancer model. Our goal for this study is to elucidate the molecular co-evolution of tumor and immune cells in cancer development and to identify molecular targets to provide alternative therapeutic options for women with metastatic disease.
    • An Immunologically Privileged Retinal Antigen Elicits Tolerance

      Avichezer, Dody; Grajewski, Rafael S.; Chan, Chi-Chao; Mattapallil, Mary J.; Silver, Phyllis B.; Raber, James A.; Liou, Gregory I.; Wiggert, Barbara; Lewis, Giavonni M.; Donoso, Larry A.; et al. (2003-12-1)
      Immunologically privileged retinal antigens can serve as targets of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a model for human uveitis. The tolerance status of susceptible strains, whose target antigen is not expressed in the thymus at detectable levels, is unclear. Here, we address this issue directly by analyzing the consequences of genetic deficiency versus sufficiency of a uveitogenic retinal antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP). IRBP-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice on a highly EAU-susceptible background were challenged with IRBP. The KO mice had greatly elevated responses to IRBP, an altered recognition of IRBP epitopes, and their primed T cells induced exacerbated disease in WT recipients. Ultrasensitive immunohistochemical staining visualized sparse IRBP-positive cells, undetectable by conventional assays, in thymi of WT (but not of KO) mice. IRBP message was PCR amplified from these cells after microdissection. Thymus transplantation between KO and WT hosts demonstrated that this level of expression is functionally relevant and sets the threshold of immune (and autoimmune) reactivity. Namely, KO recipients of WT thymi generated reduced IRBP-specific responses, and WT recipients of KO thymi developed enhanced responses and a highly exacerbated disease. Repertoire culling and thymus-dependent CD25+ T cells were implicated in this effect. Thus, uveitis-susceptible individuals display a detectable and functionally significant tolerance to their target antigen, in which central mechanisms play a prominent role.
    • Impact of clinical pharmacy services on renal transplant recipients' adherence and outcomes.

      Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Spivey, Christina A; Garrett, Charlene; McGinty, Herbert; Mulloy, Laura L; Department of Medicine (2009-11-20)
      The purpose of this article is to provide a description of a clinical pharmacy services program implemented in a renal transplant clinic to improve medication access and adherence as well as health and economic outcomes among renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Following a team-based planning process and an informal survey of RTRs, a clinical pharmacy service intervention was implemented in the Medical College of Georgia renal transplant clinic. As part of the intervention, a clinical pharmacist reviewed and optimized medication therapy, provided instructions on how to take medication, and assisted with enrollment into medication assistance programs. Significant differences were found between RTRs who did and did not receive clinical pharmacy services on measures of adherence, health, economics, and quality of life. Clinical pharmacy services, as described in this article, have a positive impact on renal transplant recipients' medication adherence, health and economic outcomes, and health-related quality of life. The findings described here suggest that clinical pharmacy services are a viable and effective option for improving care for RTRs in an outpatient clinic setting.
    • The Impact of Exercise Intensity and Fatigue on Subjective Time Perception

      Olson, Maddie; Department of Kinesiology (Augusta University, 2020-12)
      The ability to estimate time accurately is important during exercise and athletic performance. Time estimation is necessary for being able to recall time spent exercising, or a soccer player determining how much time they have before a defender begins to apply pressure. Each rely on one’s ability to judge objective time without the variability that is present in day-to-day life. Time perception is also important for exercise prescription. When prescribing exercise, the trainer must pick an intensity level that will not cause the client to feel like time is dragging on. If the client is focused on how long the workout seems to be lasting, they are more likely to be noncompliant. Cognitive workload, physical exertion and emotional strain all influence the ability to estimate time duration, and it appears with higher workloads there is a greater amount of estimation error. However, there is limited research on time perception across the full range of exercise intensity levels (from rest to maximal effort). The main objective of this study is to determine the point at which exercise intensity affects accuracy of time perception. The secondary objective is to describe the effect of exercise fatigue on time perception accuracy.
    • Impact of FTO genotypes on BMI and weight in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Wojciechowski, P.; Lipowska, A.; Rys, P.; Ewens, Kathryn G.; Franks, Stephen; Tan, S.; Lerchbaum, E.; Vcelak, J.; Attaoua, R.; Straczkowski, M.; et al. (2012-10-18)
      Aims/hypothesis: FTO gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be associated with obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes. Several small studies have suggested a greater than expected effect of the FTO rs9939609 SNP on weight in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We therefore aimed to examine the impact of FTO genotype on BMI and weight in PCOS.
    • Impact of general health on the outcomes of center-based cardiac rehabilitation

      Roberts, Kimberly A; Nursing (Augusta University, 2020-12)
      Background: Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death, and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is effective in reducing the risks of disease progression and mortality by improving physical functioning and quality of life. Despite the significant impact of CR, the completion of CR is low. Factors influencing CR completion have been widely studied, but little is known about the impact of general health on CR completion self-care behaviors, and physical functioning associated with CR completion. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to explore relationships between health beliefs, general health, CR completion, physical function, and self-care behavior. The conceptual framework shows how health belief perceptions, support systems, sociodemographic factors, and general health influence CR completion, physical function, and self-care behavior. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study using a sample of participants completing the outpatient CR center at a large medical center in the southeastern United States. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the predictors of CR completion, the improvement of physical function, and self-care behavior. Results: HbA1C predicted CR completion, and there was no significant relationship between CR completion and general health. Gender and general health (sitting time, fatigue, anxiety, and depression) predicted the improvement of physical functioning. Age and general health (sitting time, self-care complexity, and disease burden) predicted self-care behaviors. There was no relationship between health beliefs and CR completion. Conclusion: CR completion was predicted by glycemic control, while physical functioning improvement and self-care behavior were predicted by general health indicators. Additional research is needed to validate the findings and develop a sensitive screening tool to identify high-risk patients who are likely to drop out from a CR program. Further research to develop strategies to prevent CR incompletion and poor outcomes prior to patients’ participation is warranted.
    • Impact of Genetic Predisposition and Environmental Stress on Measures of Preclinical Essential Hypertension

      Poole, Joseph C.; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2006-06)
      The main objective of this project was to determine the impact of genetic risk and chronic environmental stress on measures of preclinical essential hypertension (EH) (e.g., exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity, increased resting hemodynamics and increased left ventricular mass [LVM]). A secondary objective was to evaluate the moderating and interactive effects of ethnicity, gender, body mass index [BMI] and anger expression on EH risk indices. Two genes with relevance for blood pressure (BP) control (e.g., beta-2 adrenergic receptor [ADRB2] gene and serotonin transporter [5-HTT] gene) were used to define genetic risk. Chronic environmental stress was assessed by socioeconomic status (SES) and subjective social status (SSS). The project consisted of three sequential studies on a large, multiethnic cohort of young adults (N>500). The first two studies were cross-sectional and based on the analysis of cardiovascular reactivity, resting hemodynamics and LVM data collected at a single visit. The third study was longitudinal and involved the tracking of BP and LVM over a 15-year span from childhood to early adulthood. In the first study, ADRB2 haplotype significantly interacted with anger suppression in African Americans such that high anger suppressing carriers had the highest resting SBP (p<.05) and TPR reactivity to a cold pressor task (p<.01). In European Americans, ADRB2 haplotype significantly interacted with BMI to predict resting hemodynamics, such that carriers who were high in BMI showed the highest SBP (p<.05). In the second study, a significant interaction between the 5-HTT promoter region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and social status was found for cardiovascular reactivity, such that S allele homozygotes who were low in SES and high in SSS exhibited the greatest BP and TPR reactivity to the video game stressor (p-values<.05). No significant interaction was found between 5- HTTLPR and social status in the longitudinal study, however a significant 5- HTTLPR by BMI interaction was determined for LVM, such that obese LL homozygotes had the greatest LVM over time (p<.001). Results from this project expand what is currently known with regard to EH etiology and carry implications for the prevention of EH through the early consideration of genetic, environmental and demographic risk factors.
    • Impact of Myeloid Cell NF-κB Signaling on Glioblastoma Growth

      Venugopal, Natasha; Howard, Shelby; Achyut, Bhagelu; Jain, Meenu; Arbab, Ali; Bradford, Jennifer W.; Department of Biological Sciences (2017-03)
      Cancer consists of malignant tumor cells as well as supporting, non-cancerous cells that make up the tumor stroma. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), a critical component of the stroma, can be present in very large numbers in a variety of cancers, and can lead to tumor progression through promotion of tumor inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Canonical nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway activity is very important in normal immune function, synaptic plasticity, and memory, and aberrant NF-κB activity is associated with autoimmune disease, and importantly, cancer. Previous studies have been reported about the importance of tumor cell associated NF-κB signaling in cancers. As myeloid cell NF-κB signaling may also be important in promoting cancers, we have been utilizing the p65fl/fl/LysMCre transgenic animal model, which lacks p65 protein in cells of the myeloid lineage, to study the impact of myeloid cell derived NF-κB signaling in glioblastoma (GBM), an extremely aggressive brain cancer. This transgenic model has a very efficient deletion of p65 protein and drastically reduced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), but brain residing microglia do not have significantly lower p65 levels as compared to control microglia. Even with this finding, p65fl/fl/LysMCre mice implanted with syngeneic GBM cells have significantly reduced GBM tumor burden than LysMCre control mice, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging. This result underscores the potential importance of bone marrow cells that migrate to the tumor site and significantly contribute to GBM growth. This work also indicates the potential benefits of targeting myeloid specific NF-κB signaling in GBM patients.