• A facilitated tracking and transcription mechanism of long-range enhancer function.

      Zhu, Xingguo; Ling, Jianhua; Zhang, Ling; Pi, Wenhu; Wu, Min; Tuan, Dorothy; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2007-09-14)
      In the human epsilon-globin gene locus, the HS2 enhancer in the Locus Control Region regulates transcription of the embryonic epsilon-globin gene located over 10 kb away. The mechanism of long-range HS2 enhancer function was not fully established. Here we show that the HS2 enhancer complex containing the enhancer DNA together with RNA polymerase II (pol II) and TBP tracks along the intervening DNA, synthesizing short, polyadenylated, intergenic RNAs to ultimately loop with the epsilon-globin promoter. Guided by this facilitated tracking and transcription mechanism, the HS2 enhancer delivers pol II and TBP to the cis-linked globin promoter to activate mRNA synthesis from the target gene. An insulator inserted in the intervening DNA between the enhancer and the promoter traps the enhancer DNA and the associated pol II and TBP at the insulator site, blocking mid-stream the facilitated tracking and transcription mechanism of the enhancer complex, thereby blocking long-range enhancer function.
    • Factors influencing middle school methematics teachers' beliefs about ELLs in mainstream classroom

      Pettit, Stacie; Department of Teacher Education (Texas Tech University, 2011)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing the beliefs middle school mathematics teachers have about English Language Learners (ELLs) in mainstream classrooms. One hundred forty-nine middle school mathematics teachers from 11 school systems in Georgia completed the “Middle School Mathematics Teachers’ Beliefs about English Language Learners Questionnaire.” Teachers who had received training felt significantly more prepared to teach ELLs and to help them understand class materials than did teachers who had not received training. In addition, females believed significantly more than males that teachers should modify assignments for ELLs. Teachers need more training in ELL pedagogy to successfully meet the needs of the ELLs they are likely to encounter.
    • Factors Underlying the Early Limb Muscle Weakness in Acute Quadriplegic Myopathy Using an Experimental ICU Porcine Model

      Ochala, Julien; Ahlbeck, Karsten; Radell, Peter J.; Eriksson, Lars I.; Larsson, Lars; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2011-06-14)
      The basic mechanisms underlying acquired generalized muscle weakness and paralysis in critically ill patients remain poorly understood and may be related to prolonged mechanical ventilation/immobilization (MV) or to other triggering factors such as sepsis, systemic corticosteroid (CS) treatment and administration of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). The present study aims at exploring the relative importance of these factors by using a unique porcine model. Piglets were all exposed to MV together with different combinations of endotoxin-induced sepsis, CS and NMBA for five days. Peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) as well as biceps femoris muscle biopsy specimens were obtained immediately after anesthesia on the first day and at the end of the 5-day experimental period. Results showed that peroneal nerve motor conduction velocity is unaffected whereas the size of the CMAP decreases independently of the type of intervention, in all groups after 5 days. Otherwise, despite a preserved size, muscle fibre specific force (maximum force normalized to cross-sectional area) decreased dramatically for animals exposed to MV in combination with CS or/and sepsis. These results suggest that the rapid declines in CMAP amplitude and in force generation capacity are triggered by independent mechanisms with significant clinical and therapeutic implications.
    • False coverage rate - adjusted smoothed bootstrap simultaneous confidence intervals for selected parameters

      Sun, Jing; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Many modern applications refer to a large number of populations with high dimensional parameters. Since there are so many parameters, researchers often draw inferences regarding the most significant parameters, which are called selected parameters. Benjamini and Yekutieli (2005) proposed the false coverage-statement rate (FCR) method for multiplicity correction when constructing confidence intervals for only selected parameters. FCR for the confidence interval method is parallel to the concept of the false discovery rate for multiple hypothesis testing. In practice, we typically construct FCR-adjusted approximate confidence intervals for selected parameters either using the bootstrap method or the normal approximation method. However, these approximated confidence intervals show higher FCR for small and moderate sample sizes. Therefore, we suggest a novel procedure to construct simultaneous confidence intervals for the selected parameters by using a smoothed bootstrap procedure. We consider a smoothed bootstrap procedure using a kernel density estimator. A pertinent problem associated with the smoothed bootstrap approach is how to choose the unknown bandwidth in some optimal sense. We derive an optimal choice for the bandwidth and the resulting smoothed bootstrap confidence intervals asymptotically to give better control of the FCR than its competitors. We further show that the suggested smoothed bootstrap simultaneous confidence intervals are FCR-consistent if the dimension of data grows no faster than N^3/2. Finite sample performances of our method are illustrated based on empirical studies. Through these empirical studies, it is shown that the proposed method can be successfully applied in practice.
    • Families and Addictions: Forgiveness as a Powerful Clinical Tool

      Camino-Gaztambide, Richard F.; Malavé de León, Eunice; Department of Psychiatry and Health Behavior
      Short Description: Addictions are complex behaviors that have a profound impact on the individual, family, and society. Forgiveness can transform negative emotions for oneself or others to achieve or sustain recovery. The purpose of the workshop is to offer the clinical underpinnings that can facilitate the implementation of forgiveness in practice. Abstract: Addictions are complex behaviors that have a profound impact on the individual, family, and at a societal level. Although many see addictions as fundamentally a disease of the brain and clearly brain structures and functions are significantly involved, nevertheless, brain function alone does not address the consequences and profound effects that addictions have on the patient's ecosystem. Family, friends, co-workers, and neighborhood, all are altered with frequent feelings of anger, shame, guilt, and rejection present in all parties. Usually, these feelings are in response to real or perceived transgressions by one or more persons, and it is not uncommon that trauma is present, producing persistent stress which can interfere with recovery. The concept of forgiveness can be a powerful tool to help patients address the injury and trauma that they have done or received by others. Shame, defined as a “flawed self, often accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and powerlessness” is associated with negative feelings and poorer recovery. In contrast, guilt, that focuses more on the behavior not necessarily reflected as the total self, is more amenable to forgiveness. Forgiveness as a disposition to where the use of negative emotions for oneself or others can be transformed to achieve or sustain recovery. The Twelve-step facilitation model can be integrated, especially focusing on steps four through nine, as other models like Narrative, ACT, and CBT are also able to use the concept of forgiveness in effective ways. The purpose of the workshop is to provide basic theoretical and clinical underpinnings, use case presentations, interactive discussions, to provide skills that can facilitate the implementation of forgiveness in clinical practice. “Addiction is more than a disease and involves more than the brain: it is a systemic behavioral disorder.”
    • Family-based genome-wide association study for simulated data of Framingham Heart Study.

      Xu, Hongyan; Mathew, George; George, Varghese; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (2009-12-18)
      ABSTRACT : Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have quickly become the norm in dissecting the genetic basis of complex diseases. Family-based association approaches have the advantages of being robust to possible hidden population structure in samples. Most of these methods were developed with limited markers. Their applicability and performance for GWAS need to be examined. In this report, we evaluated the properties of the family-based association method implemented by ASSOC in the S.A.G.E package using the simulated data sets for the Framingham Heart Study, and found that ASSOC is a highly useful tool for GWAS.
    • Fast- Track Approach Following Heart Surgery in Infancy and Early Childhood: Outcome Analysis and Predictors of Failure

      Esquivel, Raquel; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Early extubation (EE) has become a critical determinant in perioperative management following congenital heart surgery (CHS) during early childhood. Fast track (FT) strategies and EE, when feasible, can have beneficial effects on clinical outcomes. The authors sought to determine the impact of EE on clinical outcomes, total hospital costs, identify predictors of failure and suggested criteria for new patients. A retrospective chart review of children ≤6 years old (n=64) who underwent CHS between January-December 2017 was performed. EE was defined as successful removal of the endotracheal tube in the operating room or upon arrival in intensive care unit (ICU). Groups were identified as (A):EE/Fast track and (B):no EE. Determinants for EE failure were assessed, and cost analysis pursued. The authors found 39 patients with EE compared to 25 that were not. Children who were EE (mean=6.795 days, sd= 4.250) spend significantly less (p < 0.0001) overall time in the ICU compared to non-EE patients (mean=19.960 days, sd=13.081). The authors also found that the total hospital stay for patients who were EE (mean=6.976 days, sd=4.090) was significantly reduced compared to those who were not (mean=21.783 days, sd=13.450) (p <0.0001). Furthermore, the authors found that children who were EE had a significant reduction (p <0.0001, sd= 23,196.203) in total hospital cost than patients who were not EE. Based on our analysis, we concluded that EE is feasible following CHS during early childhood but requires team approach and thoughtful use of FT protocols.
    • Fast-Track Approach Following Heart Surgery in Infancy and Early Childhood: Outcome Analysis and Predictors of Failure

      Geister, Emma; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2020-05)
      Early extubation (EE) has become a critical determinant in perioperative management following congenital heart surgery (CHS) during early childhood. Fast track (FT) strategies and EE, when feasible, can have beneficial effects on clinical outcomes. The authors sought to determine the impact of EE on clinical outcomes, total hospital costs, identify predictors of failure and suggested criteria for new patients. A retrospective chart review of children ≤6 years old (n=64) who underwent CHS between January-December 2017 was performed. EE was defined as successful removal of the endotracheal tube in the operating room or upon arrival in intensive care unit (ICU). Groups were identified as (A):EE/Fast track and (B):no EE. Determinants for EE failure were assessed, and cost analysis pursued. The authors found 39 patients with EE compared to 25 that were not. Children who were EE (mean=6.795 days, sd= 4.250) spend significantly less (p < 0.0001) overall time in the ICU compared to non-EE patients (mean=19.960 days, sd=13.081). The authors also found that the total hospital stay for patients who were EE (mean=6.976 days, sd=4.090) was significantly reduced compared to those who were not (mean=21.783 days, sd=13.450) (p <0.0001). Furthermore, the authors found that children who were EE had a significant reduction (p <0.0001, sd= 23,196.203) in total hospital cost than patients who were not EE. Based on our analysis, we concluded that EE is feasible following CHS during early childhood but requires team approach and thoughtful use of FT protocols.
    • Female Teens Step It Up with the Fitbit Zip: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

      Linck, Donna Teresa; Department of Physiological & Technological Nursing (5/22/2018)
      Physical inactivity is a global pandemic. Six percent of all deaths globally (approximately 3.2 million people) are the result of insufficient physical activity, and 80% of adolescents worldwide do not get the recommended levels of daily physical activity. Depression is a major cause of disability worldwide and is a significant disease of burden for most age groups. Female adolescents are more than twice as likely to experience depressive symptoms as their male counterparts. The primary purpose of this randomized controlled pilot study was to determine if the use of electronic activity monitors, specifically Fitbit Zips, and daily step goals would increase physical activity participation in female adolescents. The secondary purpose was to determine if participation in a 12-week intervention using Fitbit Zips together with step goals would reduce depressive symptoms in female adolescents. The tertiary purpose was to determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining female adolescents (80% or more) in the study and having them adhere to the research protocol. There were no available research studies examining physical activity and depressive symptoms in female adolescents using Fitbit Zips as an intervention to increase physical activity and decrease depressive symptoms. A convenience sample of 44 female adolescents from two church youth groups in the southeastern United States participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 16.6 years. Psychosocial variables such as self-efficacy, social support, and commitment to a plan of action were assessed. Using mixed model analysis, no significant differences (p = .678) were found between the experimental (Fitbit-E) and control groups (Fitbit-C) on average median steps per day. The Fitbit-C group had 6,088.3 (SE = 668.6) average median steps per day at baseline, but only had 2,783.7 (SE = 698) average median steps per day at posttest. The Fitbit-E group had a lesser decline with 6,279.1 (SE = 661) average median steps per day at baseline and 4,339.4 (SE = 728) average median steps per day at posttest. Both groups’ depression scores, as measured by the CES-D, decreased from pretest to posttest, indicating an improvement in depressive symptoms. However, the difference between the two groups on depression scores was not statistically significant (p = .425). Post hoc pairwise comparisons yielded statistically significant decreases in depression scores for the Fitbit-C group (p = .002) and for the Fitbit-E group (p < .001) from pretest to posttest. Additionally, 42 out of 44 participants (95%) completed final CES-D surveys, and 35 out of 44 (79.5%) had some final step count data at post-test. Therefore, it was feasible to recruit and retain 80% of the participants in this RCT pilot study, and they did adhere to the protocol. This study helps bring to light the importance of promoting physical activity and assessing for depressive symptoms in the female adolescent population. Although there were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups on depressive symptoms for the 12-week intervention period, within each group there were significant decreases in depressive symptoms. The results from this study provide the groundwork to further investigate the impact of EAMs on physical activity and depressive symptoms in female adolescents.
    • The Fifty-First State: How Americanization Through the Military Transformed South Korea's Politics and Culture

      Welsh, Grace; Pamplin College; Albert, Craig; Department of Political Science; Bratton, Angela; Department of History, Anthropology, & Philosophy; Leightner, Jonathan; Hull College of Business; Augusta University (2018-02-12)
      Currently, the United States continually maintains a military presence in the South Korea even after the Korean War. This has greatly affected Korean culture through the widespread use of English. As such, the notion of Americanization developed through militarization and is referred to as the action of making something American in character or nationality. Instead of rejecting the influence of the United States, Korean culture localized what was once globalized through modern popular culture. Since the late 1990's and early 2000's, Korean Pop (Kpop) music, films, and Kdramas (television shows) have grown substantially in popularity and productionresulting in a strong international following. Many examples of American influences, such as the military,are seen in these entertainment fields because ofglobalization and localization (glocalization). This paper investigates the effects of Americanization through militarization from the Korean War on South Korea's current military. By examining different time frames, current examples of Korean pop culture will be utilized to explain localized American influences regarding the military.
    • Fighting Fear with Fire: Analyzing the Causes of the Rohingya Conflict in Myanmar

      Latremouille, Georgia; Department of Social Sciences (Augusta University, 2018-05)
      Political instability in Myanmar has been a reoccurring pattern since the country's independence in 1948 with ethnic conflict playing a central role in these issues. Most recently, the Rohingya ethnic group has been involved in a deadly ethnic war against Myanmar's government military. If politicians aim to end this war and seek to prevent future conflicts, it is necessary to examine why ethnic conflicts occur in the first place. This study aims to understand the question: what is the cause of the Rohingya conflict and why is it occurring? I address this question by examining relevant theories of ethnic conflict and utilizing such theories to make an assertion about why the Rohingya conflict is occurring. Ignoring the issue of why these types of conflicts occur has negative consequences for future policy and peacemaking strategies.
    • FINANCIAL LITERACY: MEASUREMENT AND IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES

      Graham, Caroline; Hull College of Business (Augusta University, 2020-12)
      Prior research conducted by organizations such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has shown that many people claim they feel secure with their knowledge of financial planning and management. However, as witnessed during the government shutdown, feelings are not the same as actions. If that was the case, then many people would have been able to cover their expenses despite missing a few paychecks. Moreover, whenever a financial literacy quiz has been provided to the public, history has shown that “less than ten percent of the respondents pass” (Martin, 2017) showing that financial literacy levels are low. Over the years, many people have gained more knowledge on saving strategies, budgeting, and the benefits of investing. In their report, the Federal Reserve found that, “when asked about their finances, 75 percent of adults say they are either doing okay or living comfortably. This result in 2018 is similar to 2017 and is 12 percentage points higher than 2013.” (The Federal Reserve, 2019, p. 1). However, the number of individuals still living paycheck to paycheck while drowning in debt is alarmingly high. A blogger from Equifax found that “56% of Americans don’t have any money left over at the end of the month after paying their bills” (Financial Literacy Survey: Do You Save for a Rainy Day?, 2019). This is caused by poor financial planning, living beyond one’s means or taking on too much debt, and sometimes, a combination of all three. This study will add to research by emphasizing the importance of financial literacy by evaluating the financial health of survey respondents and their knowledge of common concepts of finance. These concepts include interest, investments, and inflation. The respondents were recruited via Facebook and personal contact, such as family and classmates. The data collected will be used to examine how financial literacy varies across socioeconomic demographics. Lastly, the study will provide recommendations on ways financial education programs can improve to reach a larger audience and educate the public. These recommendations will be based on the survey responses on how people would like to receive financial education in the future.
    • Fish Assemblages in Brunsen Creek on St. Catherines Island, GA

      Sapp, Mikael; Ong, Claudia; McKittrick, Jacob; Moak, Jason; Department of Biological Sciences (2016-03)
      St. Catherines Island, in Liberty County, is one of Georgia’s uninhabited barrier islands. Due to its location approximately seven miles from the mainland and thirty miles from the Savannah River, the surrounding estuary has seen negligible anthropogenic impacts throughout its history. Specifically, Brunsen Creek, on its southern end, is considered to contain a pristine marine ecosystem. This study was initiated to provide baseline data for the surrounding Georgia estuarine ecosystems, many of which have had human impacts. Ichthyofaunal data was collected monthly within Brunsen Creek via trawling from September 2014 through August 2015, and will continue for the immediate future. Fishes collected show consistent relationships in natural migration and reproduction that have also been noted in other studies. Temporal trends in the appearance of fishes in Brunsen Creek samples, and their increasing lengths, reflect a well-established natural pattern along Georgia’s coast. Tracking these trends will provide a baseline of expected life history events for several species and a reference for further research within southeastern estuaries. Funding Source: Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship, Department of Biological Sciences and Museum of National History
    • Fit Body and Soul: A Randomized Controlled Diabetes Prevention Program in Southeastern African-American Churches

      Williams, Lovoria B.; Garvin, Jane; Marion, Lucy; Dias, James; Joshua, Thomas V.; Sattin, Richard W. (2014-02)
      Aim: The aim of Fit Body and Soul was to test the efficacy and cost utility of a culturally-adapted Group Lifestyle Balance Program, a derivative of the Diabetes Prevention Program, implemented by church health advisors in 20 southeastern US African-American churches, compared to a health education program developed from the topics of the CDC Guidelines for Healthy Americans.
    • FK228 Analogues Induce Fetal Hemoglobin in Human Erythroid Progenitors

      Makala, Levi HC; Di Maro, Salvatore; Lou, Tzu-Fang; Sivanand, Sharanya; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Pace, Betty S.; Department of Pediatrics (2012-05-14)
      Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) improves the clinical severity of sickle cell disease (SCD), therefore, research to identify HbF-inducing agents for treatment purposes is desirable. The focus of our study is to investigate the ability of FK228 analogues to induce HbF using a novel KU812 dual-luciferase reporter system. Molecular modeling studies showed that the structure of twenty FK228 analogues with isosteric substitutions did not disturb the global structure of the molecule. Using the dual-luciferase system, a subgroup of FK228 analogues was shown to be inducers of HbF at nanomolar concentrations. To determine the physiological relevance of these compounds, studies in primary erythroid progenitors confirmed that JMA26 and JMA33 activated HbF synthesis at levels comparable to FK228 with low cellular toxicity. These data support our lead compounds as potential therapeutic agents for further development in the treatment of SCD.
    • FLATFISH ASSEMBLAGE AND ABUNDANCE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SAINT CATHERINES ISLAND AND SATILLA RIVER ESTUARIES

      Bickle, Abigail; Coleman, Alex; Brown, Jason; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma; Sethuraman, Sankar; Department of Biological Sciences; Department of Mathematics; Reichmuth, Jessica; Saul, Bruce; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
      St. Catherines Island is a pristine uninhabited barrier island off of the Georgia coast, and is believed to have experienced less anthropogenic alteration when compared to mainland estuarine habitats. In contrast, the Satilla River estuary has been historically affected by human activity, especially during the construction of navigational "cuts" through the marsh in the early 1900s. These cuts were used to support economic gain no longer in the area. Because of the differences in human influence, we hypothesize the fish assemblages will be different. We compared abundance of various resident flatfish species captured when trawling and using gill nets in these two systems. As benthic species, flatfish may be especially affected by anthropogenic disturbances of the estuarine substrates. This study provides insight into the effects of human disturbances on benthic fish species populations and assemblages. We compared catch-per-unit effort for six flatfish species between data among several sites, seasonally, between 2015 and 2018. We also looked at environmental variables when comparing abundance. The data are reflective of differences that exist in resident flatfish populations, and this condition could be explained by anthropogenic activities.
    • Flowcharts for the diagnosis and treatment of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis: Tokyo Guidelines.

      Miura, Fumihiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Kawarada, Yoshifumi; Nimura, Yuji; Wada, Keita; Hirota, Masahiko; Nagino, Masato; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; et al. (2007-01-25)
      Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for acute biliary inflammation/infection (acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis), according to severity grade, have not yet been established in the world. Therefore we formulated flowcharts for the management of acute biliary inflammation/infection in accordance with severity grade. For mild (grade I) acute cholangitis, medical treatment may be sufficient/appropriate. For moderate (grade II) acute cholangitis, early biliary drainage should be performed. For severe (grade III) acute cholangitis, appropriate organ support such as ventilatory/circulatory management is required. After hemodynamic stabilization is achieved, urgent endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be performed. For patients with acute cholangitis of any grade of severity, treatment for the underlying etiology, including endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical treatment should be performed after the patient's general condition has improved. For patients with mild (grade I) cholecystitis, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment. For patients with moderate (grade II) acute cholecystitis, early laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy is preferred. In patients with extensive local inflammation, elective cholecystectomy is recommended after initial management with percutaneous gallbladder drainage and/or cholecystostomy. For the patient with severe (grade III) acute cholecystitis, multiorgan support is a critical part of management. Biliary peritonitis due to perforation of the gallbladder is an indication for urgent cholecystectomy and/or drainage. Delayed elective cholecystectomy may be performed after initial treatment with gallbladder drainage and improvement of the patient's general medical condition.
    • The FluoroDichroSpectroPhotometer: Multi-function Instrumentation for Biophysical Spectroscopy in the Ultraviolet, Visible and Near Infrare

      Sutherland, John C.; Augusta University (2016-01-22)
      The decade-wide region of the electromagnetic spectrum from wavelengths of roughly 150 nm in the far ultraviolet (UV) to 1.5 μ in the near infrared (NIR) is particularly important for biophysical spectroscopy because water is relatively transparent, while most other molecules important in bio-molecular systems absorb in some part of this "water window". In addition to spectrophotometers, which measure the absorption spectrum of a sample, the most widely used instruments are fluorometers, which measure the light emitted after absorption of a photon, and dichrometers, which measure the difference between the absorption or emission of two polarizations, either circular or linear. I will describe the rationales for, and the design and construction of a laboratory instrument capable of measuring fluorescence as well as circular dichroism (CD) and magnetic CD (MCD). A second instrument of the same general type was optimized for CD in the far and vacuum UV by the use of UV radiation from a synchrotron light source. Other developments have included the simultaneous measurement of CD and the absorption spectrum of the sample, fluorescence detected CD/MCD, and the measurement of fluorescence polarization anisotropy using the components normally associated with a dichrometer. Since its introduction in 1969, essentially all dichrometers have used photoelastic modulators (PEM) to periodically modulate the polarization of a monochromatic photon beam, which makes possible the detection of very small differences in the absorption of different polarization components of the same wavelength – to about one part in a million. I will also discuss the programming of PEMs as a function of wavelength to achieve their proper operation for the measurement of CD/MCD, linear dichroism (LD), and fluorescence polarization anisotropy, and the limits of certain approximations made in the derivation of the mathematical descriptions of the operations of dichrometers.
    • Focusing on Attention: The Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Load on Selective Attention

      Ahmed, Lubna; de Fockert, Jan W.; Tsien, Joe Z.; Department of Neurology; College of Graduate Studies (2012-08-28)
      Background: Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention.