• Early adolescents' physical activity and nutrition beliefs and behaviors in an urban cluster in the southeastern United States

      Hawks, Miranda R.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2016)
      Obesity in early adolescents is a significant public health problem that has adverse health consequences, to include increasing the risk of developing type two diabetes and hypertension. Factors such as the environment, nutrition, and physical activity contribute to obesity in early adolescents. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the physical activity and nutrition beliefs and behaviors of early adolescents in an urban cluster in the southeastern part of the United States. The researcher recruited early adolescents at a community organization and collected data using three ethnographic methods: semi-structured interviewing, participant observation, and collection of artifacts. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis to shed light on the meaning of early adolescents’ communications about their physical activity and nutrition beliefs and behaviors. Themes that emerged from data analysis included recognizing benefits of physical activity and healthy eating, family influences, connecting with the community, peer influences, electronic media influences, and developing a sense of self. This study contributes to nursing science in three ways. First, all early adolescents recognized both physical activity and healthy eating as beneficial for promoting their health and improving the quality of their lives. Second, early adolescents described their mothers as the most influential family member for both their physical activity and healthy eating behaviors. Third, the community organization was identified as the main facilitator of early adolescents’ physical activities within their immediate environment outside their home. These findings explain three different points of entry that the nursing community can use, separately or together, for their health promotion strategies to encourage physical activity and healthy eating among early adolescents.
    • Early Development of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Is Coordinated by Wnt and BMP Signals

      Patthey, Cédric; Gunhaga, Lena; Edlund, Thomas; Mei, Lin; Department of Neurology (2008-02-20)
      The formation of functional neural circuits that process sensory information requires coordinated development of the central and peripheral nervous systems derived from neural plate and neural plate border cells, respectively. Neural plate, neural crest and rostral placodal cells are all specified at the late gastrula stage. How the early development of the central and peripheral nervous systems are coordinated remains, however, poorly understood. Previous results have provided evidence that at the late gastrula stage, graded Wnt signals impose rostrocaudal character on neural plate cells, and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signals specify olfactory and lens placodal cells at rostral forebrain levels. By using in vitro assays of neural crest and placodal cell differentiation, we now provide evidence that Wnt signals impose caudal character on neural plate border cells at the late gastrula stage, and that under these conditions, BMP signals induce neural crest instead of rostral placodal cells. We also provide evidence that both caudal neural and caudal neural plate border cells become independent of further exposure to Wnt signals at the head fold stage. Thus, the status of Wnt signaling in ectodermal cells at the late gastrula stage regulates the rostrocaudal patterning of both neural plate and neural plate border, providing a coordinated spatial and temporal control of the early development of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
    • Early Events in the Periovulatory Interval: Steroidogenesis and Proliferation in Macaque granulosa cells

      Fru, Karenne N; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2006-06)
      The periovulatory interval is defined as the period of time between the ovulatory stimulus and ovulation of the ovarian follicle. It is initiated by a midmenstrual cycle release of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary and initiates a cascade of events that eventually lead to extrusion of a fertilizable oocyte as well as remodeling of the follicle into the corpus luteum. Previous experiments looking beyond 12hr after the ovulatory stimulus have identified multiple changes to the preovulatory follicle while little is known of the early periovulatory interval. In spite of the paucity of information available about this time period, it was hypothesized that multiple unknown changes occur early in the interval that are critical to normal ovulation and luteinization. Two endpoints were examined in the periovulatory interval; steroidogenic changes as well as mural granulosa cell proliferation. The novel observation of CYP 21 induction was made as well as identification of 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) synthesis in response to hCG both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, mineralocoritoid receptor (MR) is expressed by granulosa cells thus establishing their potential for corticosteroid sensitivity. Antagonism of MR ablates the normal synthesis of progesterone in response to hCG although the mechanism remains unclear. It was also concluded that even though mural granulosa cells are less likely to proliferate in response to exogenous stimulus in the form of epidermal growth factor (EGF) after hCG, proliferation can be enforced in even luteinizing granulosa cells using insulin. Moreover, mural granulosa cells express EGF family members in response to hCG and express EGF receptor constitutionally. However, more work needs to be done to elucidate the absence of EGF driven proliferation in luteinizing but not non-luteinized granulosa cells.
    • Early Extubation in Infancy and Early Childhood Following Heart Surgery: outcome analysis and predictors of failure

      Geister, Emma; College of Science & Mathematics; Department of Surgery; Crethers, Danielle; Weatherholt, Danalynn; Polimenakos, Anastasios C; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
      Early extubation (EE) has become a critical quality determinant in perioperative management for children undergoing congenital heart surgery (CHS) during early childhood. We sought to determine the benefits of EE, total hospital costs, and identify predictors of failure following EE. A retrospective chart review of children ?6 years old who underwent CHS at the Children's Hospital of Georgia between January-December 2017 was performed. EE was defined as successful removal of the endotracheal tube in the operating room or upon arrival in intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were categorized based on single-ventricle (Group A) and biventricular (Group-B) anatomy. Perioperative data points were compared and multivariate analysis was used to identify the predictors of EE failure and total hospital cost. We found that children who were EE spend significantly less overall time in both the ICU and hospital. Furthermore, we found that children who were EE had a significant reduction in total hospital cost than patients who were not EE. Based on our analysis, we concluded that EE is safe and feasible in reducing hospital costs for children undergoing congenital heart surgery.
    • Early Life Environmental Exposure and Hormonal Exposure and Race-Related Influence on the Human Stem Cell Populations in Fibroid and Myometrial Tissues Lead to Compromised Genomic Integrity and Increased Tumorigenesis

      Prusinski Fernung, Lauren; Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (5/22/2018)
      Though benign, uterine fibroids (UF) are the most significant benign neoplastic threat to women’s health and most common indication for hysterectomy. The elusive etiology of UF inhibits significant improvement in quality of care for affected women. Somatic mutations in the MED12 gene are currently thought to arise in myometrial stem cells (MSCs) converting them into UF tumor-initiating cells. Defective DNA repair increases the risk of tumorigenic somatic mutations, suggesting that additional mutations arising in fibroid stem cells (FSCs) ultimately contribute further to tumor growth and development. In addition, a significant ethnic disparity exists in UF prevalence, occurring in African American (AA) four times more as compared to Caucasian (CA) women, a phenomenon that has been observed for more than 120 years, but the molecular attributes behind UF’s ethnic disparity are still not fully realized. Our goal is to determine the mechanism by which the physiology of these human uterine MSCs is altered by changes in utero during early development of the epigenetic regulators of DNA-damage repair genes and how these stem cells lead to the origination of MED12 mutations and, ultimately, UF development later in adult life. Using a rat model of early-life environmental exposure, in which rats undergoing early uterine development were exposed to an endocrine disruptor, we compared the DNA repair capacity of exposed, "at-risk" myometrial stem cells to those from unexposed animals. In addition, we utilized human myometrial and fibroid tissue samples to characterize the myometrial stem cell populations from normal versus fibroid-containing uteri and compared the DNA repair capacity of human fibroid stem cells to the stem cells of adjacent myometrium. We determined that DNA repair in both exposed rat MSCs and human FSCs was decreased/altered compared to unexposed murine MSCs and human adjacent MSCs, respectively. In exposed rat MSCs, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair was significantly impaired both in untreated cells and in cells in which DNA DSB damage was induced. Similar phenomena were observed in human FSCs as compared to adjacent MSCs. These data suggest impaired DNA repair in exposed MSCs and in human FSCs may contribute to initiation and perpetuation of UF tumorigenesis.
    • Early Recognition of Patient Problems in Critical Care: An Interpretative Study

      Minick, Ptlene; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing; American Nurses' Foundation (1992-05)
      Early recognition of patient problems is crucial in the critical care setting, however the process of early recognition remains elusive. The literature reflects growing consensus that expert clinicians routinely use “intuitive knowing” (embodied intelligence) in critical decision-making situations (Benner, 1984; Benner & Wrubel, 1989). The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the embedded knowledge used by critical care nurses in the early recognition of patient problems. Heideggerian hermeneutical analysis was chosen as the theoretical perspective and research method because of its usefulness in revealing contextual understanding of obscure constructs. A purposeful sampling technique was used to recruit the 30 critical care nurses as participants for this study from one of two hospitals in the North Georgia area. All 30 participants had a minimum of three years of experience in critical care nursing and were interviewed once. Eight of the participants were interviewed a second time; in addition, two key participants reviewed and confirmed the interpretation for a total of 40 interviews. Two patterns considered constitutive of the nurses’ Being were found implicitly and explicitly in every interview and were entitled: (a) the perception of early recognition: engendered through care and (b) practical knowing: embodied intelligence. Major themes that were identified were: (a) experience is requisite for early recognition, (b) communication between nurses and physicians, (c) technology: help or hindrance and (d) what sustains me in nursing. A meaningful understanding of process of early recognition of patient problems contributes to nursing science, nursing education and most importantly, to the improvement of patient care.
    • The Early Stage Adjacent Disc Degeneration after Percutaneous Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty in The Treatment of Osteoporotic VCFs

      Qian, Jun; Yang, Huilin; Jing, Juehua; Zhao, Hong; Ni, Li; Tian, Dasheng; Wang, Zhengfei; Shi, Xing-Ming; Department of Pathology; College of Graduate Studies (2012-10-8)
      Background: The purpose of this paper is to determine the early incidence of disc de- generation adjacent to the vertebral body of osteoporotic fracture treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty or balloon kyphoplasty and whether adjacent disc degeneration is accelerated by this two procedures.
    • Ecotoxicology of Yellow-Bellied Sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta) in Natural Wetlands

      Hammesfahr, Rachel; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2019-05)
      Glyphosate is one of the active ingredients in many different herbicidal products such as Roundup. Preliminary research has suggested that glyphosate is a possible endocrine disruptor, can cause developmental defects, and is a potential carcinogen (Dallegrave et al., 2007; Daruich et al., 2001). Due to its potential harmful effects on different organisms, the researchers sought to monitor the levels of glyphosate in wetland areas. This was done by analyzing samples from a common indicator species, the yellow-bellied slider turtle, Trachemys scripta scripta. Research was done on turtles caught at Reed Creek Nature Center and Brick Pond Park. Physical measurements were taken, and blood was drawn from each turtle. Analysis of the glyphosate levels in the blood samples was completed using a glyphosate specific ELISA kit. Analysis from the kit showed detectable glyphosate levels in 34 out of 42 turtles tested, with concentrations ranging from 0.00 ppb to 0.59 ppb. No correlations could be found between glyphosate concentrations and the sex, mass, or age of the turtle, or the month the sample was collected, but glyphosate was found to be ubiquitous in turtles from both sampling areas. Further research could focus on different tissues such as fat or the scutes to see if glyphosate is stored in higher concentrations there than in the plasma. Other species, such as amphibians, living in the same areas could also be studied to determine if certain species are more susceptible to storing glyphosate than others.
    • ECOTOXICOLOGY OF YELLOW-BELLIED SLIDERS (TRACHEMYS SCRIPTA) AND MUSK TURTLES (STERNOTHERUS ODORATUS) IN NATURAL WETLANDS

      Hammesfahr, Rachel; Department of Biological Sciences; Cromer, Robert; Augusta University (2019-02-13)
      Glyphosate is one of the active ingredients in many different herbicidal products such as Roundup. Preliminary research has suggested that glyphosate is a possible endocrine disruptor, can cause developmental defects, and is a potential carcinogen. Due to its potential harmful effects on different organisms, we seek to monitor the levels of glyphosate in wetland areas. This will be done by analyzing samples from two commonly found indicator species, the yellow-bellied slider turtle,�Trachemys scripta, and the musk turtle,�Sternotherus odoratus. Research will be done on turtles caught at Reed Creek Nature Center and Brick Pond Park. Physical measurements will be taken, and blood will be drawn from each turtle. Analysis of the glyphosate levels in the blood samples will be completed using a glyphosate ELISA kit. While this research will not prove that glyphosate has harmful effects on the turtles, it will quantify the amount of the chemical present. If there are high concentrations, this will indicate a need for more research on how glyphosate affects different organisms so long-term effects on the environment can be estimated.
    • Ed Mills Interview

      Downing, Paul R (2011)
      This issue of the Palmetto Leaflet contains an interview with the Director of the MCG Dental Implant Maxi Course, Dr. Ed Mills.
    • EDTA Could Prevent Bisphosphonates-Related Osreonecrosis of Jaw after Traumatic Injury

      Awad, Mohamed; Department of Oral Biology (2016-03)
      The pathophysiological mechanism underlying Bisphosphonates related osteonecrosis of Jaw (BRONJ) remains poorly understood. Bisphosphonates localize to sites of osteoclast activity as Bisphosphonates bind Ca+2 in Tridentate manner. The aims of this study is to 1) prove the feasibility of in-vivo targeted removal of bisphosphonates from bone using chelating agents, and 2) use the targeted chelation to prevent BRONJ in rats. First, we tested whether local application of EDTA will reduce the bisphosphonate content in alveolar bone. Then, we tested the effect of EDTA in preventing BRONJ in eight Sprague Dawley rats that were treated intravenously for 12 weeks by Zoledronate [80 mg/kg; once per week]. Immediately after the last dose, the mandibular first and second molars were extracted on both sides, followed by application to the extraction site of EDTA on one side and saline on the other side in each animal for 10 minutes. Four weeks later, animals were sacrificed, and mandibles harvested for micro CT analysis and Extraction sites analysis. Exposure and necrosis of alveolar bone were evident on the PBS-treated extraction sites. Contralateral extraction sites treated with EDTA showed significantly improved mucosal covering and the signs of bone necrosis were significantly diminished both clinically and with micro-CT. We concluded that application of local chelating agents after tooth extraction maybe a new way for improving bone healing and preventing BRONJ.
    • EDUCATION AND FITNESS BENEFITS COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN AN OLDER AGE

      Dojack, Amanda; Schulte, Megahn; Meyers, Amos; Curry-McCoy, Tiana; Department of Kinesiology and Health Science; Department of Radiology; Holland, Angelia; Department of Kinesiology and Health Science; Augusta University (2018-02-12)
      Cognitive function and cardiovascular health often decline with age. Purpose: The relationship between cognitive performance and cardiovascular health in older versus younger men and women was examined. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 13 younger(18-35years old)and 10 older (55-75 years old) individuals. Participants visited the lab fasted and the following occurred in order: informed consent and questionnaires filled out, blood pressure and resting heart rate recorded, triglyceride and cholesterol measured via a fingerprick, anthropometric measures recorded, cognitive performance assessed via tests from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, and a modified YMCA 3-minute step test assessed recovery heart rate. Results: No differences between male and female between six different cognitive tests. The older group demonstrated significantly greater scores on five of the six cognitive tests (P<0.01-0.05) and had a higher education level (P<0.001). The younger group had lower systolic (P<0.01) and diastolic (P<0.05) blood pressure while the older group demonstrated a lower resting heart rate (P<0.05). Females demonstrated a greater recovery heart rate (P<0.01) and total cholesterol (P<0.05) than males. There were no differences in age groups for BMI, fitness level, or glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. Conclusion: Higher education and fitness may negate age-related cognitive declines.
    • The Effect of a Brief Relaxation Response Intervention on Physiologic Markers of Stress in Patients Hospitalized with Coronary Artery Disease

      Johns, Robin F.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2009-05)
      Activation of the neuroendocrine response to stress results in numerous physiologic changes that can have an untoward effect on glucose levels and hemodynamic status, especially in the patient hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). This experimental study tested the effects of a brief, nurse-delivered relaxation response (RR) intervention on physiologic markers of stress including capillary blood glucose (CBG), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and rate-pressure product (RPP) in addition to self-reported stress levels (SRSL) in patients hospitalized with CAD. In this randomized clinical trial, subjects (n = 48) were assigned to either the experimental or control group. Pretest measures of CBG, HR, SBP, DBP, RPP and SRSL were obtained for all subjects. Subjects in the experimental group were taught to elicit the RR and asked to practice the technique for 20 minutes. Subjects in the control group were instructed to rest quietly for 20 minutes. Posttest measures of CBG, HR, SBP, DBP, RPP and SRSL were obtained for all subjects following the 20 minute study period. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) demonstrated a significant difference in adjusted mean scores between the experimental and control group (p = .002). Follow-up univariate analyses of covariance demonstrated significant decreases in CBG (p = .008), HR (p = .024) and RPP (p = .044) in the group receiving the relaxation response intervention. The findings indicated that in patients hospitalized with CAD, a brief, nurse-delivered relaxation response intervention was more effective in lowing CBG, HR and RPP than a usual care approach. Thus, a brief, nurse-delivered relaxation response intervention may prove a novel method for hemodynamic and metabolic modulation of the stress response to include the prevention and treatment of stressinduced hyperglycemia among patients hospitalized with CAD.
    • The Effect of a Tobacco Cessation Service-Learning Project on CNL Student Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs, and Intentions to Intervene with Tobacco Dependent Pregnant Women

      Inglett, Sandra B.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (2011-10)
      This dissertation was a three group comparison study about the effect of a tobacco service-learning project, known as COMMIT (Circle of Motivated Moms for Infants to be Tobacco-Free), has on CNL (Clinical Nurse Leader) student’s knowledge, confidence, and Theory of Reasoned Action beliefs to intercede and educate pregnant women and/or patients. This was compared to CNL students who did not participate in a tobacco cessation service-learning project but were at the same point in their coursework and new CNL students who are just beginning their course of study. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action as a framework the Rx for Change: Clinician-Assisted Tobacco Cessation Pre/Post Test Survey was administered to 70 CNL students divided among 3 Groups. Group 1 (COMMIT) consisted of 14 CNL students, Group 2 (students at the same point in education but without a tobacco service-learning project), and Group 3 (CNL students at the beginning of their program). Factors such as demographics, knowledge, self-efficacy, confidence, control beliefs, subjective beliefs, normative beliefs, and perception of service-learning project were examined in relation to the dependent variable intentions. Qualitative data gained from structured interviews was analyzed for themes from Group 1 and Group 2. Five themes were identified and consistent between Group 1 and Group 2. They were: 1) translational, 2) student value, 3) patient value, 4) awareness, and 5) frustration. The quantitative findings revealed that Knowledge, Confidence to Counsel, and Intention scores had significant effects. There were no effects for Ability to Counsel, Subjective, Normative, or Control Beliefs. There was no correlation between the SELEB (Service-learning Benefit) scale and Intentions to Intercede nor was the regression analysis significant between SELEB and Intentions. However, there were significant correlations between SELEB and Confidence to Counsel, Ability to Counsel, Subjective Beliefs and Control Beliefs.
    • Effect of an Er,Cr:YSGG Laser on P. Gingivalis-Contaminated Titanium Alloy Dental Implant Surfaces In Vitro

      Strever, Jason; Department of Oral Biology (2016-04)
      Implant dentistry has become a widely accepted modality to replace missing teeth. However, dental implants are susceptible to biofilm-mediated inflammatory lesions (peri-implant mucositis / peri-implantitis), similar to that seen around natural teeth (gingivitis / periodontitis). These lesions, in turn, threaten the longevity of implants as anchors for dental prostheses. Because of the similarity in etiology and presentation, comparable treatment modalities are applied to resolve peri-implant and periodontal inflammatory lesions. Such a shared treatment includes mechanical debridement, with or without surgical repositioning of the soft tissue complex. However, most contemporary dental implants feature threads to engage the alveolar bone and a micro/nano-textured surface to stimulate bone-implant contact (osseointegration). Therefore, when the implant threads become exposed and contaminated by biofilm, subsequent surface debridement / decontamination becomes considerably more complex than with that of a natural tooth, which is usually debrided using a metal curette or ultrasonic device. The micro/nano-textured surface of a dental implant is easily damaged by instrumentation using a metal curette. If an efficient method of dental implant surface decontamination could be established, then clinical protocols may be developed that effectively clean the implant surface to achieve peri-implant tissue health. To this end, lasers have been introduced; however, directly applied laser energy may also affect implant surface characteristics, including micro/nano-structure and composition, essential to osseointegration. Therefore, lasers may have disadvantageous clinical effects, in turn compromising peri-implant tissue consolidation and health: the very aspects its use is attempting to provide. Commercially available Er,Cr:YSGG lasers have been used to remove such implant-attached deposits, however the efficacy in removal of bacteria and the safety to the implant surface integrity have yet to be demonstrated quantitatively.
    • Effect of b-alanine treatment on mitochondrial taurine level and 5-taurinomethyluridine content

      Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Azuma, Junichi; Schaffer, Stephen W; Department of Oral Biology (2010-08-24)
      Background: The b-amino acid, taurine, is a nutritional requirement in some species. In these species, the depletion of intracellular stores of taurine leads to the development of severe organ dysfunction. The basis underlying these defects is poorly understood, although there is some suggestion that oxidative stress may contribute to the abnormalities. Recent studies indicate that taurine is required for normal mitochondrial protein synthesis and normal electron transport chain activity; it is known that defects in these events can lead to severe mitochondrial oxidative stress. The present study examines the effect of taurine deficiency on the first step of mitochondrial protein synthesis regulation by taurine, namely, the formation of taurinomethyluridine containing tRNA.
    • The Effect of Blood Flow Rate on PMN Adherence and Protection Against Injury in the Isolated Blood Perfused Canine Lung Lobe Stimulated with PMA

      McCloud, Laryssa; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (1998-05)
      In the lung neutrophil (PMN)-endothelial interactions contribute to the endothelial damage that occurs in many disease states, such as the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Current literature states that PMN adherence is greater at low blood flow rates. How high blood flow rates affect PMN-mediated injury in the lung has not been investigated. This study was designed to determine the effects of increased blood flow on the ability of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to cause lung injury in the isolated canine lung lobe and on the ability of agents to protect against this injury. Injury was assessed by examining luminal endothelial bound angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), pulmonary artery pressure (Pa), double vascular occlusion pressure (Pdo), and the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf). PMN sequestration was measured using circulating white blood cell counts [WBC] and differentials and 51Cr labeled PMN retention by the lung. Lung lobes were perfused at low flow (LF, 0.599±0.001 L/min) or high flow (HF, 1.185±0.004 L/min) and divided into four groups. Group I, LF PMA, Group II, LF Control, Group III, HF PMA, and Group IV, HF Control. Groups I and III received PMA (10* M) while Groups II and IV were treated with the PMA vehicle. PMA decreased ACE activity and [WBC] at both flows while Pa, PVR and Kf were increased. PMA caused lung injury independent of blood flow rate. Isoproterenol (ISO) has been shown to protect against some forms of lung injury. To study the effect of flow rate on the ability of ISO (10*SM) to protect against PMAinduced injury, lobes were perfused at either 0.603±0.003 or 2.015±.0.064 L/min and were pretreated with either saline (Group I, LF Vehicle + PMA) and (Group II, HF Vehicle + PMA) or ISO (Group III, LF ISO + PMA) and (Group IV, HF ISO + PMA) for 20 min before PMA. After PMA Group I and II lobes showed significant decreases in ACE activity and increases in Pa and PVR. Kf measurements after injury could be completed in only three of the six lobes in Group II due to severe edema. Pa and PVR increased after injury in Group III lobes. In Group IV lobes ISO protected against the increases in Pa and PVR and decreases in ACE activity but caused an increase in Kf that was further increased after PMA. Thus, ISO protected against endothelial ectoenzyme dysfunction and partially protected against hemodynamic changes after PMA in lungs perfused at high blood flow rate. Lobes perfused at a low flow rate were not protected from the hemodynamic effects of PMA by ISO pretreatment. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is another agent reported to provide protection against various forms of lung injury. To study the ability of PTX (10'3M) to protect against PMA-induced injury, lobes were perfused at low flow (LF, 0.601±0.002 L/min) or high flow (HF, 1.170±0.005 L/min) and divided into four groups. Group I, LF PTX Control, Group II, LF PTX + PMA, Group III, HF PTX Control, and Group IV, HF PTX + PMA. Lobes were treated with PTX 30 min before PMA or vehicle. [WBC] and blood smear differentials were performed. PTX increased [WBC] in all groups but did not change any other measured parameters. In the presence of PTX, PMA resulted in no changes in ACE activity, Kf or hemodynamic parameters. PMA decreased [WBC] (P<0.05) in both th epresence and absence of PTX. PTX provided protection against PMA-induced lung injury at both flow rates. The injury to PMA was found to occur in lung lobes perfused at both high and low flow. PMA increased Pa, PVR and the Kf while decreasing circulating WBC counts, circulating PMN counts, A ^ /K ^ , and % metabolism of 3H-BPAP. Although the injury to PMA was found to occur independently of flow rate, the ability of ISO to protect against PMA-induced injury was found to be greatest during high flow perfusion. At high flow, ISO completely protected against increases in Pa, Pdo and PVR while attenuating the increase in the Kf. Plasma cAMP levels were also significantly increased by ISO pretreatment and were not altered by PMA in the high flow group. At low flow ISO did not prevent PMA-induced increases in Pa, Pdo or PVR. ISO did however protect against increases in the Kf and tended to increase plasma cAMP levels. Unlike ISO, PTX provided protection against PMA-induced lung injury independently of flow rate. During both high and low flow perfusion PTX protected against PMA-induced increases in Pa, PVR and the Kf while protecting against decreases in ACE enzyme activity. PTX caused the release of WBC from the lung significantly increasing both total WBC and PMN counts. PTX did not prevent the sequestration of PMN or the release of superoxide in response to PMA.
    • Effect of chronic oral treatment with risperidone or quetiapine on cognitive performance and neurotrophin-related signaling molecules in rats

      Poddar, Indrani; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (8/7/2018)
      Antipsychotic (APs) drugs are among the top selling pharmaceuticals in the world and they have a variety of important therapeutic applications for neuropsychiatric disorders. However, there are a number of controversies related to this class of agents and many of the relevant questions are difficult to prospectively address in the clinical trial environment. For example, there have been multiple clinical trials for pro-cognitive agents in schizophrenia that have failed; however, the question of how chronic prior treatment with APs might influence the response to a pro-cognitive agent was not addressed. Moreover, there is clinical evidence that chronic treatment with some APs may lead to impairments in cognition, however, this issue and the potential molecular mechanisms of the deleterious effects have been not been prospectively addressed. Accordingly, the purpose of the work described in this dissertation was to prospectively address each of these issues in animals (specifically rats) were environmental conditions can be rigorously controlled. In each of the manuscripts included in this dissertation, two of the most commonly prescribed APs, risperidone and quetiapine were evaluated. In the work conducted in Manuscript 1, we established a therapeutic relevant dosing approach for rats (oral administration in drinking water) and reinforced the argument that these two APs are not pro-cognitive agents. Moreover, we determined that alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligand like tropisetron has potential as an adjunctive medication in schizophrenia since the pro-cognitive effect was maintained in the presence of chronic AP treatment. In Manuscript 2, we concluded that chronic treatment with risperidone or quetiapine in rats can lead to impairments in a domain of cognition (recognition memory) that is commonly altered in neuropsychiatric disorders. Moreover, the negative effects of the APs appeared to be exacerbated over time. In Manuscript 3, we concluded that risperidone and quetiapine when administered chronically to rats have the potential to adversely affect neurotrophin-related signaling molecules that support synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. These data would suggest that the extensive prescribing of these APs across multiple conditions in patients ranging in age from the very young to the very old should be carefully reexamined. Key Words: antipsychotic, cognition, brain volume, schizophrenia, neurotrophin
    • Effect of Food Labeling, Weight Consciousness, and Gender on Eating Behavior

      Kelley, Johnna; College of Science and Mathematics; Widner, Sabina; Center for Undergraduate Research and Scholarship; Department of Psychological Sciences; College of Science and Mathematics (2015-04-17)
      What, and how much, people eat can play an important role in weight control and health management. The purpose of this study is to test several aspects of the Food Choice Process Model (Furst, Connors, Bisogni, Sobal, & Falk, 1996), which proposes that food choice involves multiple global factors that vary in their degree of influence and interaction. Specifically we seek to examine the effects of food labeling, weight consciousness, and gender on food consumption and the perceptions of the taste and healthfulness of a granola bar. We hypothesize that individuals who are high in weight consciousness will eat more of a “healthy” granola bar than of a “gourmet” granola bar, individuals who are high in weight consciousness and receive a “healthy” granola bar will eat less than those who are low in weight consciousness and receive a “healthy” granola bar, and individuals who are high in weight consciousness and receive a “healthy” granola bar will eat less than those who are low in weight consciousness and receive a “healthy” granola bar. In order to gather data, participants were asked to take part in a market research study in which they tasted and rated a granola bar product on aspects including taste and healthfulness. Data collection began in fall semester and data analysis should be completed by the end of March. We hope that our data will contribute to a better understanding of what influences people’s healthy (or unhealthy) food choices.
    • The Effect of Food Labeling, Weight Consciousness, and Gender on Eating Behavior

      Kelley, Johnna; Department of Biological Sciences (Augusta University, 2015-05)
      As stated previously, understanding more about what influences people’s healthy (or unhealthy) choices is key to learning how to influence decision making in a positive way. What, and how much, people eat can play an important role in weight control and health management. While there is some research on the role that gender plays in the perception of the healthiness of food, research that examines both gender and the effect that food labeling has on eating behavior is limited. Often, studies that examine the effect of food labeling tend to only recruit female participants, which reduces the generalizability of the results. The purpose of this study will be to examine the effects of food labeling, weight consciousness, and gender on food consumption and the perceptions of the taste and healthfulness of a food product. Our hypotheses are as follows: (1) There will be an interaction between weight consciousness and product type, such that those who are high in weight consciousness will eat more of a “healthy” granola bar than of a “gourmet” granola bar; (2) Individuals who are high in weight consciousness and receive a “healthy” granola bar will eat less than those who are low in weight consciousness and receive a “healthy” granola bar; (3) Those who receive a “healthy” granola bar will eat more; (4) men will eat more than women; and (5) There will be an interaction effect between gender and granola bar labeling type, such that women will eat less in the “gourmet” granola bar condition than men. Based on the literature review, no other specific outcomes are proposed for the three other possible predictions.