• The Development of the Human Field Image Metaphor Scale

      Johnston, Linda W.; Department of Physiological and Technological Nursing (1993-05)
      The purpose of this study was the theoretical development and operationalization of the concept, Human Field Image, within the framework of the Rogerian Science of Unitary Human Beings. Initial stages involved a review of the relevant literature, followed by a process of theoretical development and definition. Human Field Image was defined as an individual awareness of the infinite wholeness of the human field. Two areas of content domain, identified as field manifestations of Human Field Image, were specified; (1) one's individual perception of potential, (2) the perception of the integral nature of one's human and environmental fields. The process of definition was followed by a process of item development and refinement for the Human Field Image Metaphor Scale (HFIMS). The metaphor was chosen as the appropriate item form for this instrument. An initial pool of 105 metaphors was reviewed by prominent Rogerian scholars and reduced to 32 items for the pilot form of the instrument. A pilot study with a sample of 50 adults preceeded the major study and led to the deletion of two items. This thirty item form of the HFIMS was administered to a sample of 3 58 adults ranging in age from 17 to 85. Factor Analysis revealed the presence of five factors, with a total scale Cronbach's Alpha of .9211. Additional items were eliminated and the number of factors was decreased. Revision of the instrument resulted in a final form of 25 items with three factors and a Cronbach's Alpha of .9131. The three factors were labeled "expressions of clear images of human field", "expressions of blurred images of human field", and "Integrality." Content validity was established through consultation with Dr. Martha Rogers and other Rogerian scholars. Construct validity was established through the correlation of scores on the HFIMS with scores on the Pictorial Form of the Human Field Motion Tool (r .6647, p < .01). Results of this study indicate that the HFIMS is a valid and reliable instrument which will make a significant contribution to the Science of Unitary Human Beings.