• Characteristics of inflammation common to both diabetes and periodontitis: are predictive diagnosis and targeted preventive measures possible?

      Hanes, Philip J.; Krishna, Ranjitha; Department of Periodontics (2010-04-3)
      Keywords: Periodontitis
    • Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: potential application of circulating markers as advanced diagnostic and prognostic tools

      Abebe, Worku; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Department of Oral Biology (2010-03-10)
      Keywords: Vascular disease
    • Healthy aging and disease: role for telomere biology?

      Zhu, Haidong; Belcher, Matthew; van der Harst, Pim; Department of Pediatrics; Georgia Institute for Prevention of Human Diseases and Accidents (2011-05-1)
      Aging is a biological process that affects most cells, organisms and species. Human aging is associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, neurological diseases and cancer. Despite the remarkable progress made during the last two decades, our understanding of the biology of aging remains incomplete. Telomere biology has recently emerged as an important player in the aging and disease process.
    • Inflammatory cytokines as predictive markers for early detection and progression of diabetic nephropathy

      Elmarakby, Ahmed A.; Abdelsayed, Rafik; Yao Liu, Jun; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Department of Oral Biology (2010-03-13)
      Keywords: Renal disease
    • Intraoperative neurocytology of primary central nervous system neoplasia: A simplified and practical diagnostic approach

      Sharma, Suash; Deb, Prabal; Department of Pathology (2011)
      Intraoperative consultations may pose considerable diagnostic challenge to the neuropathologist in diagnosing primary and metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS). Cytological preparations in the form of squash, touch, imprint or smears are few of the available modalities in addition to the frozen section (FS). Although the latter is superior in providing both histologic patterns and cytomorphologic details yet smears are of vital importance when tissue available is limited (stereotactic biopsy), scrutinisation of intercellular matrix (astrocytoma versus oligodendroglioma) and evaluation of discohesive cells (lymphoma, pituitary adenoma) and in inflammatory lesions. This review is intended to emphasize the value, applicability and limitations of neurocytology aiming to expedite the intraoperative smear-based diagnoses of CNS neoplasia as per the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. We recommend that whenever possible, both smears and FS should be examined concomitantly and in a correlative manner. In the unlikely event of a mismatch between the findings on smear and FS, intraoperative diagnosis is primarily based on FS, if adequate tissue is available. However, each case must be evaluated on its own merit and in difficult cases relevant differential diagnoses should be offered to facilitate surgical decisions and optimally triage patient management.
    • Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

      Johnson, Theodore S.; Munn, David H.; Maria, Bernard L.; Department of Pediatrics; Immunotherapy Center; GHSU Cancer Center (2012-01-24)
      Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.
    • O-GlcNAcylation and oxidation of proteins: is signalling in the cardiovascular system becoming sweeter?

      Lima, Victor V.; Spitler, Kathryn M.; Choi, Hyehun; Webb, R. Clinton; Tostes, Rita C.; Department of Physiology (2012-10-1)
      O-GlcNAcylation is an unusual form of protein glycosylation, where a single-sugar [GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine)] is added (via β-attachment) to the hydroxyl moiety of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. A complex and extensive interplay exists between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation. Many phosphorylation sites are also known glycosylation sites, and this reciprocal occupancy may produce different activities or alter the stability in a target protein. The interplay between these two post-translational modifications is not always reciprocal, as some proteins can be concomitantly phosphorylated and O-GlcNAcylated, and the adjacent phosphorylation or O-GlcNAcylation can regulate the addition of either moiety. Increased cardiovascular production of ROS (reactive oxygen species), termed oxidative stress, has been consistently reported in various chronic diseases and in conditions where O-GlcNAcylation has been implicated as a contributing mechanism for the associated organ injury/protection (for example, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, arterial hypertension, aging and ischaemia). In the present review, we will briefly comment on general aspects of O-GlcNAcylation and provide an overview of what has been reported for this post-translational modification in the cardiovascular system. We will then specifically address whether signalling molecules involved in redox signalling can be modified by O-GlcNAc (O-linked GlcNAc) and will discuss the critical interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and ROS generation. Experimental evidence indicates that the interactions between O-GlcNAcylation and oxidation of proteins are important not only for cell regulation in physiological conditions, but also under pathological states where the interplay may become dysfunctional and thereby exacerbate cellular injury.
    • The potential role of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) as a predictive and therapeutic target for diabetes treatment: a mythical truth

      Baban, Babak; Penberthy, W. Todd; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Department of Oral Biology (2010-03-19)
      Keywords: Individual tolerance
    • Prediction of diabetic retinopathy: role of oxidative stress and relevance of apoptotic biomarkers

      Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Smith, Sylvia B; Department of Oral Biology; Department of Ophthalmology; Vision Discovery Institute; Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy (2010-03-23)
      Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy
    • Review of Outcome Information in 46,XX Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Assigned/Reared Male: What Does It Say about Gender Assignment?

      Lee, Peter A.; Houk, Christopher Phil; Department of Pediatrics (2010-12-21)
      There is ample historical verification of 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients being born with essentially male genitaliawhile outcome information is scant. Prior to glucocorticoid therapy, most patients died very young from adrenal insufficiency. Most available reports from laterchildhood, contain little information concerning sexual identity. Reports on older individuals lack adequate information about sexual identity and quality of life. The difficulty in assessing the relative impact of multiple dynamic environmental factors on the development of sexual identity, self- and body esteem and overall adjustment to life is clear. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether those infants whose masculine genitalia at birth resulted in an initial male assignment would have enjoyed a better adult outcome had they been allowed to remain male rather than the female reassignment that most received. Further, one could ask whether a male sex of rearing should be considered in 46,XX CAH infants with male external genitalia. After reviewing available literature, we conclude that because those extremely virlized 46,XX CAH patients who were reared male with healthy social support demonstrated satisfactory levels of social and sexual function as adults a male sex assignment should be considered in these types of infants when social and cultural environment are supportive.
    • The Role of Uridine Adenosine Tetraphosphate in the Vascular System

      Matsumoto, Takayuki; Tostes, Rita C.; Webb, R. Clinton; Department of Physiology (2011-11-1)
      The endothelium plays a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, and endothelial dysfunction is a major feature of cardiovascular diseases, such as arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Recently, uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) has been identified as a novel and potent endothelium-derived contracting factor (EDCF). Up4A structurally contains both purine and pyrimidine moieties, which activate purinergic receptors. There is an accumulating body of evidence to show that Up4A modulates vascular function by actions on endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this paper, we discuss the effects of Up4A on vascular function and a potential role for Up4A in cardiovascular diseases.