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The Influence of Ethnicity on Visual Analog Scale Pain Ratings: Pre- and Post-Radiofrequency Application for Pain of Zygapophyseal Joint OriginIncreased scrutiny of the allocation of health care dollars makes the identification of factors influencing treatment outcomes important. Few studies have examined the relationship between ethnicity and the efficacy of chronic pain management interventions (as opposed to acute pain syndromes). Radiofrequency application (RFA) is a common treatment modality for pain due to zygapophyseal joint (z joint) disease. This survey reviewed the efficacy of RFA in African American (AA) and non-Hispanic Caucasian patients. This study is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent RFA to the L3, L4 medial branch nerves, dorsal ramus of L4, and the accessory nerve from the S1 dorsal ramus to the L5-S1 z joint.