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Health-Promoting Lifestyles of Women with HIV DiseaseWomen are one of the fastest growing risk groups for HIV infection in the United States, but little is known about how women manage the problems and concerns commonly faced by individuals who are HIV positive. HIV disease results in compromised lifestyles for women as they cope with physiological and psychosocial problems that accompany this disease. The purpose of this focused ethnography was to explore health-promoting lifestyles of women with HIV disease. Research questions guiding this study were: 1) What do women with HIV disease believe they can do to enhance and/or maintain their health after diagnosis? and 2) How do women promote and maintain their health and well-being? Purposive sampling was used to obtain nine European American participants between the ages of 27 and 52 years. These participants were recruited from the southeastern United States. Semi-structured interviews and observation participation were used to obtain data. The majority of participants were interviewed three times. Observation participation occurred during interviews, at conferences, and volunteer group meetings attended by the researcher and the participants. Data analysis was concurrent with data collection enabling the researcher to confirm her interpretations with the participants. Three major themes were identified: 1) Reaching out to others, 2) Searching for meaning, and 3) Buying time. These themes constituted a health-promoting lifestyle that enabled women to adjust to the change in their identity from a healthy person to a person with HIV disease. Initially, women focused on restoring their well-being, but later initiated changes to enhance, maintain, and maximize their health.
Person Variables, Psychosocial State Variables, and Reported Health Behaviors: Relationship to Preterm DeliveryThe purpose of this study was to use a conceptual model of examine selected possible relationships among person variables, health behavior variables, and psychosocial state variables including anxiety, depression, life events, mastery, self-esteem, stress, and social support. Reported health behavior variables include smoking, drinking, drug use, prepregnant weight for height gain during pregnancy. The dependent variable was preterm delivery, which was defined as delivery before 37 weeks gestation. The dependent variable was preterm delivery, which was defined as delivery before 37 weeks gestation. The analyses used two subgroups of women. The subgroup consisted of 1163 women who delivered moderately preterm infants (32-37 weeks gestation). The second subgroup consisted of 1258 women who delivered both moderately preterm and very preterm infants (27-37 weeks gestation). Data were analyzed utilizing both univariate and multivariate statistics, with logistics regression as the principle multivariate technique. As a group, person variables and psychosocial state variables had direct relationships, as posited in the hypotheses and supported in the literature, to preterm delivery. Health behavior variables were directly related to preterm delivery in the variable set that contained both moderately preterm and very preterm infants. Indirect relationships were supported for the hypothesis that added psychosocial state to health behaviors. Individual variables that were associated with preterm delivery were self-esteem and mastery. Results of this study were significantly different than results of a parallel study using this same data set , but examining the association between psychosocial variables and intrauterine growth retardation