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Critical Role of NADPH Oxidase in Neuronal Oxidative Damage and Microglia Activation following Traumatic Brain InjuryBackground: Oxidative stress is known to play an important role in the pathology of traumatic brain injury. Mitochondria are thought to be the major source of the damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) following TBI. However, recent work has revealed that the membrane, via the enzyme NADPH oxidase can also generate the superoxide radical (O2^-), and thereby potentially contribute to the oxidative stress following TBI. The current study thus addressed the potential role of NADPH oxidase in TBI.
Niclosamide Suppresses Cancer Cell Growth By Inducing Wnt Co-Receptor LRP6 Degradation and Inhibiting the Wnt/Î²-Catenin PathwayThe Wnt/b-catenin signaling pathway is important for tumor initiation and progression. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-6 (LRP6) is an essential Wnt co-receptor for Wnt/b-catenin signaling and represents a promising anticancer target. Recently, the antihelminthic drug, niclosamide was found to inhibit Wnt/b-catenin signaling, although the mechanism was not well defined. We found that niclosamide was able to suppress LRP6 expression and phosphorylation, block Wnt3A-induced b-catenin accumulation, and inhibit Wnt/b-catenin signaling in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of niclosamide on LRP6 expression/phosphorylation and Wnt/b-catenin signaling were conformed in human prostate PC-3 and DU145 and breast MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cancer cells. Moreover, we showed that the mechanism by which niclosamide suppressed LRP6 resulted from increased degradation as evident by a shorter half-life. Finally, we demonstrated that niclosamide was able to induce cancer cell apoptosis, and displayed excellent anticancer activity with IC50 values less than 1 mM for prostate PC-3 and DU145 and breast MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cancer cells. The IC50 values are comparable to those shown to suppress the activities of Wnt/b-catenin signaling in prostate and breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that niclosamide is a unique small molecule Wnt/b-catenin signaling inhibitor targeting the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 on the cell surface, and that niclosamide has a potential to be developed a novel chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for human prostate and breast cancer.
Rac1 Activation Driven by 14-3-3f Dimerization Promotes Prostate Cancer Cell-Matrix Interactions, Motility and Transendothelial Migration14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed dimeric adaptor proteins that have emerged as key mediators of many cell signaling pathways in multiple cell types. Its effects are mainly mediated by binding to selective phosphoserine/threonine proteins. The importance of 14-3-3 proteins in cancer have only started to become apparent and its exact role in cancer progression as well as the mechanisms by which 14-3-3 proteins mediate cancer cell function remain unknown. While protein 14-3-3s is widely accepted as a tumor suppressor, 14-3-3f, b and c isoforms have been shown to have tumor promoting effects. Despite the importance of 14-3-3 family in mediating various cell processes, the exact role and mechanism of 14-3-3f remain unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the role of protein 14-3-3f in prostate cancer cell motility and transendothelial migration using biochemical, molecular biology and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing approaches as well as cell based functional assays. Our study indicated that expression with wild-type protein 14-3-3f significantly enhanced Rac activity in PC3 cells. In contrast, expression of dimer-resistant mutant of protein 14-3-3f (DM-14-3-3) inhibited Rac activity and associated phosphorylation of p21 activated kinase-1 and 2. Expression with wild-type 14-3-3f or constitutively active Rac1 enhanced extracellular matrix recognition, lamellipodia formation, cell migration and trans-endothelial migration by PC3 cells. In contrast, expression with DM 14-3-3f or DN-Rac1 in PC3 cells significantly inhibited these cell functions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that 14-3-3f enhances prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration in vitro via activation of Rac1-GTPase and is an important target for therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer.