Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10675.2/782
Title:
Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists
Authors:
Miller, Virginia M; Kaplan, Jay R; Schork, Nicholas J; Ouyang, Pamela; Berga, Sarah L; Wenger, Nanette K; Shaw, Leslee J; Webb, R. Clinton; Mallampalli, Monica; Steiner, Meir; Taylor, Doris A; Merz, C Noel Bairey; Reckelhoff, Jane F
Abstract:
Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, economic status, marital status and access to healthcare contribute to sex differences in adverse outcomes, physiological and molecular bases of differences between women and men that contribute to development of cardiovascular disease and response to therapy remain underexplored.; Methods: This article describes concepts, methods and procedures to assist in the design of animal and tissue/cell based studies of sex differences in cardiovascular structure, function and models of disease.; Results: To address knowledge gaps, study designs must incorporate appropriate experimental material including species/strain characteristics, sex and hormonal status. Determining whether a sex difference exists in a trait must take into account the reproductive status and history of the animal including those used for tissue (cell) harvest, such as the presence of gonadal steroids at the time of testing, during development or number of pregnancies. When selecting the type of experimental animal, additional consideration should be given to diet requirements (soy or plant based influencing consumption of phytoestrogen), lifespan, frequency of estrous cycle in females, and ability to investigate developmental or environmental components of disease modulation. Stress imposed by disruption of sleep/wake cycles, patterns of social interaction (or degree of social isolation), or handling may influence adrenal hormones that interact with pathways activated by the sex steroid hormones. Care must be given to selection of hormonal treatment and route of administration.; Conclusions: Accounting for sex in the design and interpretation of studies including pharmacological effects of drugs is essential to increase the foundation of basic knowledge upon which to build translational approaches to prevent, diagnose and treat cardiovascular diseases in humans.
Citation:
Biol Sex Differ. 2011 Dec 12; 2:14
Issue Date:
12-Dec-2011
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10675.2/782
DOI:
10.1186/2042-6410-2-14
PubMed ID:
22152231
PubMed Central ID:
PMC3292512
Type:
Article
ISSN:
2042-6410
Appears in Collections:
Department of Physiology: Faculty Research and Presentations

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Virginia Men_US
dc.contributor.authorKaplan, Jay Ren_US
dc.contributor.authorSchork, Nicholas Jen_US
dc.contributor.authorOuyang, Pamelaen_US
dc.contributor.authorBerga, Sarah Len_US
dc.contributor.authorWenger, Nanette Ken_US
dc.contributor.authorShaw, Leslee Jen_US
dc.contributor.authorWebb, R. Clintonen_US
dc.contributor.authorMallampalli, Monicaen_US
dc.contributor.authorSteiner, Meiren_US
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, Doris Aen_US
dc.contributor.authorMerz, C Noel Baireyen_US
dc.contributor.authorReckelhoff, Jane Fen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-10-26T20:30:43Z-
dc.date.available2012-10-26T20:30:43Z-
dc.date.issued2011-12-12en_US
dc.identifier.citationBiol Sex Differ. 2011 Dec 12; 2:14en_US
dc.identifier.issn2042-6410en_US
dc.identifier.pmid22152231en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/2042-6410-2-14en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10675.2/782-
dc.description.abstractBackground: Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, economic status, marital status and access to healthcare contribute to sex differences in adverse outcomes, physiological and molecular bases of differences between women and men that contribute to development of cardiovascular disease and response to therapy remain underexplored.en_US
dc.description.abstractMethods: This article describes concepts, methods and procedures to assist in the design of animal and tissue/cell based studies of sex differences in cardiovascular structure, function and models of disease.en_US
dc.description.abstractResults: To address knowledge gaps, study designs must incorporate appropriate experimental material including species/strain characteristics, sex and hormonal status. Determining whether a sex difference exists in a trait must take into account the reproductive status and history of the animal including those used for tissue (cell) harvest, such as the presence of gonadal steroids at the time of testing, during development or number of pregnancies. When selecting the type of experimental animal, additional consideration should be given to diet requirements (soy or plant based influencing consumption of phytoestrogen), lifespan, frequency of estrous cycle in females, and ability to investigate developmental or environmental components of disease modulation. Stress imposed by disruption of sleep/wake cycles, patterns of social interaction (or degree of social isolation), or handling may influence adrenal hormones that interact with pathways activated by the sex steroid hormones. Care must be given to selection of hormonal treatment and route of administration.en_US
dc.description.abstractConclusions: Accounting for sex in the design and interpretation of studies including pharmacological effects of drugs is essential to increase the foundation of basic knowledge upon which to build translational approaches to prevent, diagnose and treat cardiovascular diseases in humans.en_US
dc.rightsCopyright ©2011 Miller et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.en_US
dc.subjectReviewen_US
dc.titleStrategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientistsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3292512en_US
dc.contributor.corporatenameDepartment of Physiology-

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