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Relevant Role Activities, Educational Preparation and Self-Perceived Competence of First-Level Nurse Managers in Taiwan(1987-04)The purpose of this descriptive coo relational study was to determine the critical-role activities of head nurses in Kaohsiung City hospitals, Taiwan, R.O.C., and the adequacy of their educational preparation for and competence in enacting their roles. The subjects consisted of 29 head nurses who are currently functioning as first-level managers on inpatient units in five Kaohsiung City hospitals. The role activities section ( 41 items ) of The Nurse Administrator Role Activities And Administrative Knowledges ( NAKAAK) Questionnaire was used for data collection in this study. The mean scores for each role activity - associated with a nurse managers role, were used to determine the relevance of, preparation for, and competence in performing first level management roles. Thirty-two role activities were rated by the subjects as most relevant role to th~ir enactment. They identified only one activity for which they perceived they were well prepared. They rated themselves very competent, however, in the performance of 35 of total 41 role activities. Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficients were used to determine the·.relationships between their preparation and relevance, relevance and competence, and competence and preparation ratings. Moderate correlations were found between their preparation for and the relevance of 13 role activities. High correlations were found between the relevance of and competencein the performance of 1 0 role activities and moderate coo relations for-29. Moderate eorrelations between competence in the performance and preparation for were found for 14 role activities. The Chi-Square test was employed to test the relationships between - selected personal factors ( age, education, and tenure ) and their self perceived competence. Signifi"cant differences were found between nursing education and self perceived competence for eight activities. Several recommendations for further studies were drawn including the need for ongoing revision and updating of head nurses' job descriptions to reflect the changing reality of their role requirements and the need for ongoing managerial staff development and continuing education for head nurses. In addition, it is recommended that the NARAAK instrument used in this study be further tested by retesting the same sample group in fo_ur months. It will then be possible to achieve an estimate of reliability of the instrument for use in Taiwan.
A Transforming Growth Factor From MCG-T14 Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells(1983-04)Mitogenic activity was assayed in the harvest fluid concentrates (HFC) from. human· mammary cell.lines ·(T47P, HSO 578T, MDA-157, HBL-100 and BT-20) and a mouse mamamry carcinOinii (MCG-T14) cell line. Data showed that the HFC from four of the human cell lines (T47D,.HSO 578T, MDA-157, and HBL-fOO) and the mouse cell line (MCG-Tl4) were sour.ces of mitogenic activity. The mitogenic activity from the HFC was not due to the action of the serine protease, plasminogen activator. The mitogenic substance was also not a cell degradation product. The HFC from the human mammary carcinoma line BT-20 contained a non-dialyzable inhibitory activity which su~pressed the activities of the mitogerts in fetal bovine serum. Attempts to isolated the mitogenic activity from HFCs proved impractical due to proteolytic breakdown. However, a transforming growth factor (TGF) from acid-ethanol extracts of MCG-T14'mouse mammary carcinoma ' ' cells was isolate~ and·partially characterized. This factor stimulated thymidine uptake in BALB/c 3T3 cells and promoted anchorage-independent growth of NRK-49F cells in soft agar. The mitogenic activity, designated T14-TGF, stimulted thymidine uptake in conflue.nt-quiescent BALB/c 3T3 cells to the same extent as tha,t exhibited by 5% calf serum. T14-TGF was potentiated by EGF in its ability to promote colonial growth of NRK-49F cells. In competition binding assays, T14-TGF and EGF competed for binding to BALB/c 3T3 and A431 cells. However, EGF was a more efficien~ competitor than T14-TGF in all experiments and T14-TGF exhibited only partial inhibition of EGF-binding to A431 cells. This suggests that T14-TGF may have contained subfractions which did not compete for EGF binding sites. Nerve growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and multiplication stimulating activity did not compete with T14-TGF for binding .. 1 sites .on BALB/c 3T3 cells. In addition, iodinated T14-TGF did not bind to NR6/6 3T3 cells which lack EGF receptors. It was concluded that Tl4-TGF must interact with EGF receptors specifically~ 2 T14-TGF was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity by electroelution from 15% SDS-urea polyacrylamide gelso The factor was basic (pi 8.3), had anapparent moleculaJ; weight of 14,000 and was selectively inactivated by trypsin. In addition, T14-TGF exhibited no proteolytic activity and contained no carbohydrate residues. The biological activity of T14-TGF was resistant to inactivation by acid or heat and· denaturation by guanidine HCl. T14-TGF was completely inactivated by treatment with dithiothreitol which indicated that it required one or more intact disulfide .bridges for activ~ty. A unique characteristic of T14 ... TGF was that this factor bound very strongly to. both DEAE or carboxymethyl f:on excha'Iigers. T14-TGF contained high proportions of basic amino acid residues lys~ne and arginine.
Neonatal Nurses' Knowledge of Their Standards of Practice: A Reflection of Accountability(1984-02)The purpose of this study was to examine the neonatal nurses'- knowledge of standards of nursing practice. It was post~lated the degree to which a nurse understands and accepts her professional . accou~ta.bility depend·s :upon her own understanding of her status~ The level of knowledge was obtained from the investigator's selfdesigned tool. Additionally, the study .examined··whether or not a ' . ' ' . difference existed between the knowledge of nu'rses who care for . . . infants who require varying degree~ of 'nursing care, as evidenced by the t:y-pe of hospital ·they are employed in· und~r :regionalization guide~ lines. It further examined the relationship be~ween ·the personal -· variable of type of basic nursing education with the t·otal and subscale scores on the tool. A descriptive--correlational design was ·used to examine the study data generated from· 61 registered nurses, distri~uted _among 15 hospitals in one Southeastern stat_e. Analysis of the study .data using descriptive stati.stics indicated that the neonatal nurses wereknowledgeable of their standards of practice. Pe~rson correlation coefficients revealed no significant difference exis~ed amongst the nurses in Level I,. II _and III neonatal care facilities, nor was there any correlation between the nurses' educational preparation and their level of knowledge of the standards of practice. Additionally~ Pearson correlation coefficients· and Cronhach' s alpha ·were. used to determine the statistic:al validity and r~liabi.li ty es-timates of the tool •..